Alvarez M.A.,CG Automation BU |
Arzuaga T.,CG Automation BU
Water and Energy International | Year: 2013
The benefits in the evolution of traditional electrical grid into the Smart Grid, are more evident every day. However, this evolution is also offering more rewards to potential attackers as well as a wider range of potential attack vectors due to the increase in the use of communications and the integration of operational systems in the internet. This has led to an increased awareness of the need for implementation of Cybersecurity measures in the Smart Grid. Cybersecurity field has not been part of the body of knowledge of electrical grid designers, though. So, even if equipment manufacturers are beginning to deal with the inclusion of CyberSecurity features to their developments, they are not always following the best approach but trying to find and follow recommendations and best practices guides. However, there are no fixed rules that ensure the security of equipment yet. The main aim of this paper is to use a pragmatic approach to create a reference guide for a first approach of equipment manufacturers to the world of cybersecurity. To achieve this, it is necessary to analyze very different aspects ranging from the work of public agencies such as NERC CIP or penetration testing techniques (such as those made by Digital Bond in S4), to international standards (IEC62351…), key management procedures. All of this should also be combined with the study of known Cybersecurity attacks such as Stuxnet. This paper takes into account that the implementation of Cybersecurity is a quite different task compared with the ones usually tackled by manufacturers. On one hand, it must be considered that it is not a concrete and definite task, but a set of decision making and measurement implementation rules relatively unconnected to one another. However, they help in the prevention of a whole range of risks for equipment. On the other hand, and, unlike what happens with other features, the implementation of security measures does not 100% guarantee the security of equipment, so the task does never end, and in addition to the prevention methods, detection methods should also be implemented to offer quick detection of new vulnerabilities. The combination of prevention and detection will sometimes fail, so a good Cybersecurity system must also consider mitigation and recovery techniques. This paper proposes as a practical approach the decomposition of the system in use cases as concise and clear as possible. The different steps proposed for use cases are as follows: • Initial analysis based on abstract concepts such as confidentiality, integrity and availability (CIA model). • Analysis of risks and vulnerabilities, focusing primarily on scaled potential attacks. • Selection of generic methodologies for prevention, detection and response. • Selection of the security features both hardware (chip key storage, cryptographic coprocessors, biometric protection ...) and software (security libraries, logs and event managers ...). Tracking a top-down methodology for writing use cases, favours Cybersecurity non based on “magic formulas”, but on common sense. © 2013 Central Board of Irrigation and Power. All rights reserved.