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Manohara A.,Field Marshal K M Cariappa College | Somashekar K.L.,CFTRI
Asian Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences | Year: 2011

Glucoamylases are one of the amylolytic enzymes used in starch hydrolysis in food industry. Major enzymes of industrial importance are of microbial origin. Glucoamylases are of a family of Endoamylases that catalysis both 1,4 and 1,6- glycosidic linkage in polymers of a D-glucose. So it increases the yield but is used after initial treatment with α-amylase. The amylolytic yeasts that are potential candidates that can reduce the cost of production. In the present work, several strains of yeasts were screened from rotten potato and rotten sweet potato and tested for efficiency of starch hydrolysis. Quantitative determinations of amylolytic potentiality of the yeasts were determined by assay method. Different parameters like pH, starch concentration and temperature required for maximum glucoamylase production were tested. These screened yeast strains were identified by microscopic and biochemical parameters. Totally four different strains of yeasts were isolated from rotten potato and rotten sweet potato are identified as Cystofilabasidium sp, Filobasidium Sp, Saccharomycopsis Sp and Cryptococcus Sp. © Global Science Publications.


Chetana P.R.,Bangalore University | Rao R.,Bangalore University | Saha S.,Indian Institute of Science | Policegoudra R.S.,Defense Research Laboratory | Aradhya M.S.,CFTRI
Polyhedron | Year: 2012

New ternary copper (II) complexes, [Cu(l-orn)(B)(Cl)](Cl·2H 2O) (1-2) where l-orn is l-ornithine, B is an N,N-donor heterocyclic base, viz. 2,2′-bipyridine (bpy, 1) and 1,10-phenanthroline (phen, 2), were synthesized and characterized by various spectroscopic techniques. Complex 2 is characterized by the X-ray single crystallographic method. The complex shows a distorted square-pyramidal (4 + 1) CuN 3OCl coordination sphere. Binding interactions of the complexes with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) were investigated by UV-Vis absorption titration, ethidium bromide displacement assay, viscometric titration experiment and DNA melting studies. Complex 2 shows appreciable chemical nuclease activity in the presence of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA). The complexes were subjected to in vitro cytotoxicity studies against carcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cells (A-549) and human epithelial (HEp-2) cells. The IC 50 values of 1 and 2 are less than that of cisplatin against HEp-2 cell lines. MIC values for 1 against the bacterial strains Streptococcus mutans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are 0.5 mM. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Pednekar M.,Bhabha Atomic Research Center | Das A.K.,CFTRI | Rajalakshmi V.,Bhabha Atomic Research Center | Sharma A.,Bhabha Atomic Research Center
Radiation Physics and Chemistry | Year: 2010

Effect of radiation processing (10, 20 and 30 kGy) on soybean for better utilization was studied. Radiation processing reduced the cooking time of soybean and increased the oil absorption capacity of soy flour without affecting its proximate composition. Irradiation improved the functional properties like solubility, emulsification activity and foam stability of soybean protein isolate. The value addition effect of radiation processing has been discussed for the products (soy milk, tofu and tofu fortified patties) prepared from soybean. © 2009.


Ramesh B.N.,CFTRI | Raichurkar K.P.,Vikram Hospital | Shamasundar N.M.,JSS University | Rao T.S.S.,JSS University | Rao K.S.J.,CFTRI
Neurochemistry International | Year: 2011

Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia and is structurally characterized by brain atrophy and loss of brain volume. Aβ is one of the widely accepted causative factors of AD. Aβ deposition is positively correlated with brain atrophy in AD. In the present study, structural brain imaging techniques such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) were used to measure neuroanatomical alterations in Alzheimer's disease brain. MRI is a non-invasive method to study brain structure. The objective of the present study was to elucidate the role of Aβ on brain structure in the aged rabbit brain. Among 20 aged rabbits, one batch (n = 10) rabbits was injected chronically with Aβ(1-42) and another batch (n = 10) with saline. The MRI was conducted before Aβ(1-42)/saline injection and after 45 days of Aβ(1-42)/saline injection. All the aged rabbits underwent MRI analysis and were euthanized after 45 days. The MRI results showed a significant reduction in thickness of frontal lobe, hippocampus, midbrain, temporal lobe and increases in the lateral ventricle volume. We also conducted an MRI study on AD (n = 10) and normal (n = 10) cases and analyzed for the thicknesses of frontal lobe, hippocampus, midbrain, temporal lobe and lateral ventricle lobe. We found significant reductions in thickness of the frontal lobe and the hippocampus. However, no significant reduction in the thickness of midbrain, temporal lobe or increase in the lateral ventricle volume was observed compared to normal. Correlations in brain atrophy changes between rabbit brain and human AD brain were found for frontal lobe and hippocampal regions. In contrast, other regions such as midbrain, temporal lobe, and lateral ventricles were not correlated with rabbit brain atrophy changes in the corresponding regions. The relevance of these changes in AD is discussed. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Chetana P.R.,Bangalore University | Rao R.,Bangalore University | Lahiri D.,Indian Institute of Science | Policegoudra R.S.,Indian Defence Research And Development Laboratory | And 2 more authors.
Polyhedron | Year: 2014

Four binuclear copper (II) complexes [Cu(oxpn)Cu(B)]2+ (2-5) bridged by N, N′-bis[3-(methylamino) propyl] oxamide (oxpn), where, B is N, N-donor heterocyclic bases (viz. 2,2′-bipyridine (bpy, 2), 1,10-phenathroline (phen, 3), dipyrido[3,2-d:2′,3′-f]quinoxaline (dpq, 4) and dipyrido[3,2-a:2′,3′-c]phenazine (dppz, 5) are synthesized, characterized by different spectroscopic and single crystal X-ray data technique. The phen (3) and dpq (4) complexes were structurally characterized by X-ray data analysis. Their DNA binding, oxidative cleavage and antibactirial activities were studied. The dpq (4) and dppz (5) complexes are avid binders to the Calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA). The phen (3), dpq (4) and dppz (5) complexes show efficient oxidative cleavage of supercoiled DNA (SC DNA) through hydroxyl radical (OH) pathway in the presence of Mercaptopropionic acid (MPA). © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Bhaskaragoud G.,CFTRI | Rajath S.,CFTRI | Mahendra V.P.,CFTRI | Kumar G.S.,CFTRI | Gopala Krishna A.G.,CFTRI
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2016

The effect of oryzanol (well known hypolipidemic component in rice bran oil) and its chemical constituents- ferulic acid (FA) and phytosterols on hypolipidemia were investigated. Methods and Results: Docking (in silico) studies showed that FA had a better binding ability with lipase while sterols bound well with HMG-CoA reductase. Further in vivo studies of feeding high fat (30%) to rats increased body weights, serum TC, TG, non-HDL-C and reduced HDL-C were observed, compared to normal diet fed group (ND). ORZ treated groups alleviated the lipid profile. Furthermore, increased organ weights, higher intestinal lipase activity, and liver lipid peroxidation was observed in the high-fat group (HF). These effects were ameliorated in oryzanol concentrate fed groups (ORZ). Higher fecal fat was found in ORZ groups, analysis of fecal matter by mass spectroscopy revealed the presence of FA. In vitro, a bile acid binding study supported the strong affinity of sterol towards bile acids. In conclusion, oryzanol in the intestine is cleaved into FA and sterol by intestinal lipase enzymes both lipase and HMG-CoA reductase activities were inhibited, respectively. These hydrolysates eliminated the bile acids, thus lowering lipid profiles. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.


Devi S.M.,CFTRI | Halami P.M.,CFTRI
Current Microbiology | Year: 2011

Fifty-five bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from seven different sources. Eight isolates were found to produce pediocin PA-1 like bacteriocin as detected by pedB gene PCR and dot-blot hybridization. The culture filtrate (CF) activity of these isolates exhibited strong antilisterial, antibacterial activity against tested food-borne pathogens and LAB. The identification and genetic diversity among the selected LAB was performed by conventional morphological and molecular tools like RFLP, RAPD, and 16S rDNA gene sequencing. The isolates were identified as, 1 each of Pediococcus acidilactici Cb1, Lactobacillus plantarum Acr2, and Streptococcus equinus AC1, 2 were of P. pentosaceus Cb4 and R38, and other 3 were Enterococcus faecium Acr4, BL1, V3. Partial characterization of the bacteriocins revealed that the peptide was heat-stable, active at acidic to alkaline pH, inactivated by proteolytic enzymes, and had molecular weight around 4.6 kDa and shared the properties of class IIa pediocin-family. The bacteriocin production at different temperatures, pH, and salt concentrations was studied to investigate the optimal condition for application of these isolates as a starter culture or as a biopreservative in either acidic or non-acidic foods. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011.


Shashirekha M.N.,CFTRI | Mallikarjuna S.E.,CFTRI | Rajarathnam S.,CFTRI
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2015

Components of cereals, legumes, pulses, proteins, sea food, milk, carbohydrates and lipids are being evaluated for their influence on human health, as biofunctional compounds. However, references dealing with fruits and vegetables exceed any other food group and accordingly their focus. Fruits and vegetables abound in a spectacular range of such health influencing compounds and thus, study of their bioactivity, in lieu of their consumption in fresh or processed form. Anti-cancerous phenolics from Phyllanthus, radioprotective Litchi phenolics/flavonoids, hypoglycemic Sygium, quercitin and hydroxyl cinnamates of Sweet cherries, xanthones of Mangosteen, ellagitannins of Pomegranate, ursolic acid of Sea buckthorn, muscle relaxative watermelon, anti-cholesterolemic soluble fibre and sterols, cardioprotective saponins, ACE-inhibitory potato hydrolysates, anti-pancreatic cancerous ascorbic acid, carotenoids including pro-vitamin A are few examples unraveled. Thus, the imminent scope to obviate their structural chemistry, influence on storage and processing conditions, factors favoring their bio-accessibility/bio-availability in the food formulations, influencing human health. It is the meticulous combination of these compounds in daily consumption that determines their usefulness to human body. What is of paramount importance is the actual health benefits accrued from consumption of such functional- compound based fresh/processed fruits,vegetables or other foods. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


PubMed | CFTRI
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Biochemical and biophysical research communications | Year: 2016

The effect of oryzanol (well known hypolipidemic component in rice bran oil) and its chemical constituents- ferulic acid (FA) and phytosterols on hypolipidemia were investigated.Docking (in silico) studies showed that FA had a better binding ability with lipase while sterols bound well with HMG-CoA reductase. Further invivo studies of feeding high fat (30%) to rats increased body weights, serum TC, TG, non-HDL-C and reduced HDL-C were observed, compared to normal diet fed group (ND). ORZ treated groups alleviated the lipid profile. Furthermore, increased organ weights, higher intestinal lipase activity, and liver lipid peroxidation was observed in the high-fat group (HF). These effects were ameliorated in oryzanol concentrate fed groups (ORZ). Higher fecal fat was found in ORZ groups, analysis of fecal matter by mass spectroscopy revealed the presence of FA. Invitro, a bile acid binding study supported the strong affinity of sterol towards bile acids. In conclusion, oryzanol in the intestine is cleaved into FA and sterol by intestinal lipase enzymes both lipase and HMG-CoA reductase activities were inhibited, respectively. These hydrolysates eliminated the bile acids, thus lowering lipid profiles.


PubMed | CFTRI
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Neurochemistry international | Year: 2011

Alzheimers disease is the most common form of dementia and is structurally characterized by brain atrophy and loss of brain volume. A is one of the widely accepted causative factors of AD. A deposition is positively correlated with brain atrophy in AD. In the present study, structural brain imaging techniques such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) were used to measure neuroanatomical alterations in Alzheimers disease brain. MRI is a non-invasive method to study brain structure. The objective of the present study was to elucidate the role of A on brain structure in the aged rabbit brain. Among 20 aged rabbits, one batch (n=10) rabbits was injected chronically with A(1-42) and another batch (n=10) with saline. The MRI was conducted before A(1-42)/saline injection and after 45 days of A(1-42)/saline injection. All the aged rabbits underwent MRI analysis and were euthanized after 45 days. The MRI results showed a significant reduction in thickness of frontal lobe, hippocampus, midbrain, temporal lobe and increases in the lateral ventricle volume. We also conducted an MRI study on AD (n=10) and normal (n=10) cases and analyzed for the thicknesses of frontal lobe, hippocampus, midbrain, temporal lobe and lateral ventricle lobe. We found significant reductions in thickness of the frontal lobe and the hippocampus. However, no significant reduction in the thickness of midbrain, temporal lobe or increase in the lateral ventricle volume was observed compared to normal. Correlations in brain atrophy changes between rabbit brain and human AD brain were found for frontal lobe and hippocampal regions. In contrast, other regions such as midbrain, temporal lobe, and lateral ventricles were not correlated with rabbit brain atrophy changes in the corresponding regions. The relevance of these changes in AD is discussed.

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