CFD Research Corporation | Date: 2016-11-14
The present disclosure provides a method of generating electricity from a long chain hydrocarbon, said method comprising contacting the liquid non-polar substrate with a plurality of enzymes, wherein at least one enzyme is non-electric current/potential enzyme that functions as a catalyst for chemical reaction transforming a first substrate or byproduct to a second substance that can be used with an additional electric current/potential generating enzyme.
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Missile Defense Agency | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 998.04K | Year: 2016
Thermally induced fatigue and residual stress introduced during fabrication are sources of failure in microelectronics, which raises reliability concerns for MDA and its system integrators. CFDRC has teamed with experts in the reliability of microelectronics packaging to develop a physics based modeling and testing protocol to correlate material properties and thermal loading conditions to stress related failure. Specific outcomes include; (a) experimental evaluation of adhesive bond performance under thermal stress conditions, (b) development and application of a testing protocol to quantify the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch necessary to elevate stress to cause degradation, (c) physics based models to simulate thermo-mechanical stress between bonded components, and (d) a fine scaled physics based damage model to relate thermo-mechanical stress to damage progression. This effort includes the development of the test and modeling protocols, generation of data to parameterize models and application of the models to the study of thermal fatigue in adhesive bonded components. The end use of the modeling and testing protocol is to extract design rules and materials selection guidelines to allow MDA and its prime contractors to mitigate component failures related to CTE mismatch through improved designs and materials selection and with reduced long-duration cyclic testing.
Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: National Institutes of Health | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 349.88K | Year: 2016
Abstract The objective of this study is to develop a novel predictive in vitro model for personalized responses to CFTR directed therapeutics This proposal responds to RFA HL Human Cellular Models for Predicting Individual Responses to Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Directed Therapeutics Cystic fibrosis CF is a life shortening genetic disease caused by loss of function mutations of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator CFTR gene that encodes an anion channel critical for ion and fluid transport Excellent clinical responses for some individuals e g G D heterozygotes have been seen with ivacaftor a new CFTR directed modulator drug but for the majority of patients benefit has been much less substantial To improve the lives of all CF patients it is crucial that in vivo conditions including the variety of specific mutations and complexity of multi drug therapy as well as pharmacokinetic interactions are faithfully reproduced in an in vitro environment that can be used to rapidly and accurately predict drug efficacy We propose a highly novel in vitro personalized predictive tool on a microfluidics platform utilizing a patient s own cells to target the therapeutic strategy to an individual s complex genetic background and assess full physiological responses to CFTR directed drugs This model will be developed on our commercially available SynVivo family of cell based assays and will mimic the complex airway structure of the CF lung including scale morphology and cellular interactions between the blood the epithelium and the endothelium We will couple this with a novel integrative assessment of CFTR function and airway physiology including multiple aspects of mucus clearance via micro optical coherence tomography in an in vitro environment enabling biologically realistic studies Phase I will culminate with a clear demonstration of the microfluidic platform for physiological responses observed in CF patients with the G D gating mutation During Phase II we will expand the platform by the evaluation of CFTR targeted therapeutics with multi agent therapy and detailed clinical validation A multi disciplinary industry academic partnership with expertise in all areas essential to the successful accomplishment of project goals has been assembled including skilled investigators studying microfluidics cell based assays CF lung physiology drug discovery and development therapeutic screening and clinical studies The end product will be commercialized to pharmaceutical firms drug research labs and universities non profit centers engaged in precision therapeutics drug discovery and drug delivery The primary endpoint is to develop an assay for use as a clinical tool to a priori determine efficacy on a personalized basis for CF patients The overall goal of the proposed effort is to develop and validate a novel in vitro personalized predictive tool on a microfluidic platform utilizing a patient s own cells to target the therapeutic strategy to an individual s complex genetic background and assess full physiological responses to CFTR directed drugs The proposed development will be based on our award winning and commercially available SynVivo family of cell based assays The SynVivo derived from synthetic in vivo model will mimic the physiological structure of the airway including scale morphology cellular interactions between the blood endothelium and the epithelium and airway dynamics in an in vitro environment enabling biologically realistic studies
Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: National Institutes of Health | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 473.71K | Year: 2016
DESCRIPTION provided by applicant Pulmonary drug delivery has emerged as a noninvasive alternative route for the treatment of lung diseases asthma COPD CF and lung cancer In order to obtain the desired level of effectiveness and safety of the inhaled drugs an appropriate deposition on the targeted region and subsequent absorption in the targeted region is vital Multiscale multidisciplinary computational tools linking Computational Fluid Dynamics CFD particle species transport and PBPK PD models were developed during the Phase I effort for obtaining mechano biological insights and quantifying the efficacy of the delivery processes Preliminary results demonstrated the validity and capabilities of this multiscale multidisciplinary computational concept In Phase II we will i extend the existing particle transport models for handling varied drug sizes ii further develop the deposition formulations for the Reduced Order Models ROM for faster than life simulations iii incorporate the airway wall biomechanics model for accurately capturing the dynamics of lumen diameter change smooth muscle force particle transport deposition in healthy and diseased lung states global or local levels of progression iv extend and validate the mucosal transport clearance models on ROM wire meshes to characterize the effects of healthy and diseased states on drug clearance and absorption in the lung tissue v calibrate the models for matching clinical PBPK data for various drugs and administration protocols and vi significantly improve the existing GUI for lung geometry alteration support diseased states and for the whole body PBPK The above aims will hasten the development of pulmonary drugs by carefully identifying key mechanical and biopharmaceutical factors affecting efficacy and safety of inhaled drugs using fast and robust computational simulations A multistep simulation protocol for modeling drug inhalation delivery deposition absorption and PBPK PD will be established High fidelity tools will be targeted for pharma expert users and automated fast running reduced order models for pharma end users The proposed computational toolkit will thus provide a virtual platform to investigate interactions between drug delivery methods drug carrier types and the human physiological systems at multiple scales and ultimately optimize the efficacy of pulmonary drug delivery process PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE The novel software tool proposed in this project will provide an efficient and accurate computational platform to virtually test design develop and optimize nasally orally inhaled drug products by investigating interactions between delivery methods generic specific drug carrier types and the human physiological systems at multiple scales This computational toolkit will hasten the drug discovery process by identifying key mechano biological factors affecting the efficacy and the safety of inhaled drugs using fast and robust simulations This will aid the pharma experts the end users and the pharmaceutical industry by facilitating translational applications from bench to bedside by obtaining new insights into the drug interaction at various scales by enhancing success rates of new and existing pulmonary drug products and by ultimately helping reduce health care burdens on society
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Army | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 999.53K | Year: 2015
The U.S. Army is seeking a long life energy solution that delivers high energy density, good reliability, long shelf-life, and improved safety for monitoring the health of electronic components in remote and sometime harsh locations. Current batteries can only deliver limited lifetime (perhaps 5 years) upon discharge, while our proposed technology has the ability to deliver more energy for extended duration (up to 20 years) with enhanced safety and reliability. The proposed battery will also be less sensitive to temperature, making it operational across the desired -55C to +125C temperature range. In Phase II, we will demonstrate a solid-state battery, named LONGLIFE, employing high capacity electrodes and inorganic solid electrolyte. The battery utilizes existing high capacity electrodes developed by CFDRC for long shelf-life Thermal Batteries. We will focus on developing a fully integrated prototype for delivery to the Army. The work will consist of i) synthesizing the solid electrolyte, ii) fabricating the high capacity electrodes, iii) assembling the cell and electrochemical testing of the battery, and iv) computational modeling to predict the lifetime across the desired temperature and discharge rate operating space. The LONGLIFE battery will be a safe, reliable solution providing sufficient energy for ultra-long duration applications.
Agency: National Aeronautics and Space Administration | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 749.90K | Year: 2016
Innovative low cost, light-weight airlock technologies are required to integrate with deep space and surface platform hosting Extra-Vehicular Activity. CFDRC team proposes an inflatable airlock structure that employs unique fabric architecture capable of delivering the lowest mass and greatest versatility of any competing design. The proposed design features a completely integrated air beam inter-wall to passively generate the wall stiffness required for airlock depressurization?without the mass and bulk of aluminum pressure hulls or complexity of multi-structure adaptations of competing inflatable habitat architectures. This unique architecture utilizes a matrix of braided fiber tendons to contain the structure?s global pressure loads. The underlying woven fabric and gas barrier envelopes are thereby only exposed to minimal local shell loads where they bulge outwards between adjacent tendons. Working in pure tension in the absence of load coupling, the tendon array architecture has been shown to be statically determinate and auto-stabilizing under extreme deflection. The proposed airlock stows compactly for transport to the habitat further reducing logistic costs. Phase I effort focused on conceptual design of the airlock system, identification and evaluation of candidate materials, and characterization of the airlock system. Phase II effort will focus on design refinement, integrated testing, analysis, and integration plan that will culminate in the fabrication and demonstration of a subscale prototype inflatable airlock structure.
Agency: National Aeronautics and Space Administration | Branch: | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 749.93K | Year: 2016
High-energy space radiation from Galactic Cosmic Rays and Solar Particle Events (SPEs) pose significant risks to equipment and astronaut health in NASA missions. Energetic particles from SPEs associated with flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) may adversely affect not only beyond-Low-Earth-Orbit missions, but also aircraft avionics, communications, and airline crew/passenger health. It is crucial to develop a capability to forecast SPEs and their effects on systems to guide planning of mission-related tasks and risk mitigation strategies. CFD Research Corporation (CFDRC), University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH), and Vanderbilt University (VU) propose to develop a comprehensive forecasting capability - SPE Forecast (SPE4) - comprising state-of-the-art modules integrated within a novel computational framework. SPE4 will include: (a) the MAG4 code for probability forecasts of flares/CMEs, and SPEs, (b) the PATH code for solar particle transport through the heliosphere, (c) Geant4-based transport calculations including geomagnetic modulation and atmospheric interactions (for avionics) to yield spectra of SPE-induced energetic protons/heavy ions, interfaced to (d) the CR?ME96 code for calculation of resulting effects in electronics. In Phase I, we demonstrated the superior capability of MAG4, PATH, and Geant4 for their respective tasks using a prior solar event case. A controller script was developed for automated code execution and data transfer across interfaces. Functionality of the overall event-to-effects capability was demonstrated using the 28-Sep-2012 event. We developed a concept of the final software product for NASA based on client-server architecture. In Phase II, we will collaborate with VU to interface calculated particle spectra with CR?ME96 to determine single-event effects in electronics. We will enhance robustness, accuracy, and execution speed via improved models and procedures, and demonstrate the software for persistent 24x7 SPE monitoring.
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Defense Health Program | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 999.96K | Year: 2015
The vast majority of injuries in recent military conflicts have been inflicted by improvised explosive devices (IEDs) causing brain, extremities and genital-urinary injuries. Advanced computational models of IED blast physics and human body injury biomech
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Defense Health Program | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 999.99K | Year: 2015
Current methods for stem cell isolation are time-consuming, costly, and labor-intensive, and ill-suited for point of care applications. To overcome these limitations, we propose to develop and demonstrate a high-throughput, non-invasive, microfluidic stem cell analyzer to enable a rapid isolation of high-quality stem cell products from clinically relevant samples. Our technology enables significant improvements in processing time, automation, cell integrity, and logistical burden and cost, and opens a new possibility for interaoperative therapeutics. In the initial effort, key technology components were successfully developed. Device design, microfabrication, and experimental test were all undertaken to demonstrate microfluidic cell sorting and impedance characterization of stem cell differentiation, which markedly enhances TRL of the technology. This proposed effort will focus along two directions. First, a novel cell sorter will be developed to address challenges associated with clinical samples, such as large volume, high cell contents, target cell rarity, etc. Design optimization, fabrication refinement, and experimental characterization will be carried out to establish feasibility of the non-culture based stem cell isolation. Second, the sorter will be integrated with COTS component technologies for automated operation to improve GMP-readiness of the technology. The functionality of stem cell isolation will be extensively demonstrated using various pre-clinical samples, e.g., bone marrow, adipose, skin etc. A multi-disciplinary team with experience in all aspects of the proposed effort including microfluidics, stem cell bioengineering, regenerative medicine, and systems engineering has been assembled to ensure successful completion of project milestones.
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Defense Health Program | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 999.85K | Year: 2015
The overall objective of the proposed project is to develop new injury criteria, model based risk assessment methodology, and a software tool to assess neck injury risk from head supported mass (HSM) loading. Based on the foundation of Phase I feasibility studies, the proposed Phase II work will focus on model enhancement, extension and validation, risk assessment, and software integration and testing. Specific technical objectives of Phase II include 1) development of anthropometry scaling methodology for the 50th percentile male and female neck models, 2) development of new injury criteria of discs and muscles for long-exposure loading based on predicted disc damage and muscle fatigue, 3) prediction of injury severity and probability (in accordance to AR-40-10) for different HSM loading levels and task scenarios, including stationary posture maintenance, marching, running, jumping, diving to prone, vehicle riding, repeated shocks, etc., 4) Integration of a risk assessment software tool with an intuitive GUI allowing user inputs of load exposure schedule and adjustment of HSM position and inertia properties. The final software can be utilized by military R&D engineers and acquisition professionals to evaluate HSM products and recommend less hazardous designs and usage scenarios.