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Lawrence D.,CF Industries | Ballard J.,Sud-Chemie, Inc. | Baratto F.,Ammonia Casale S.A.
Ammonia Plant Safety and Related Facilities | Year: 2011

With many ammonia plants already stretched to capacities in excess of 150% of their original nameplate, many are contemplating an ammonia converter revamp as part of the next evolution in increasing their production capability. For many, such projects are a once in a career event, and there is much that can be gained from sharing the details of ammonia converter projects that have already been completed successfully. An excellent example of such a project was completed at the CF Industries plant in Woodward, Oklahoma in early 2009. This plant's attention to safety, diligent planning, and close working relationship with their technology provider and catalyst supplier ensured the safety and success of this project.


Dean M.,CF Industries | Briggs K.,Johnson Matthey | Chisamore J.,Johnson Matthey
Ammonia Plant Safety and Related Facilities | Year: 2015

Proper monitoring and balancing of Ammonia Plant Primary Reformer temperatures provides significant safety, equipment reliability and production efficiency benefits. Furnace operation is limited by catalyst tube and riser design. High Tube Wall Temperatures can significantly reduce the life of catalyst and riser tubes and lead to tube failures. This discussion illustrates the teamwork between CF Industries (CFI) and Johnson Matthey to monitor and balance Primary Reformer burner firing and catalyst tube wall temperatures to increase Ammonia Plant operational safety, equipment reliability, and production efficiencies.


Dean M.,CF Industries | Rembold T.,Clariant
Ammonia Plant Safety and Related Facilities | Year: 2014

The CF Industries (CFI) Ammonia Plant No. 5 in Donaldsonville, LA has been in operation for more than 35 years. The plant's design capacity was 1150 STPD. To improve the ammonia converter performance CFI opted for revamping both the main and the booster Ammonia converters. The main converter was upgraded from a Casale 4 bed with interchanger and 122-C exchanger to an Isothermal converter. The second converter which had not been in service was converted to a single bed adiabatic converter. Both converters now combine Casale's internals with Clariant's wustite-based catalyst AmoMax®-10. CFI led the project with the goal of achieving a higher converter exit ammonia capacity with improved energy savings. The combined effect of CFI project management and advanced technology from Casale and Clariant resulted in a successful project. The project was initiated in 2010 and a successful test run certificate was signed by the parties in September 2013. This discussion illustrates the teamwork between CFI, Casale, and Clariant to implement this project along with outlining the improved converter and synloop performance and production efficiencies achieved after the project was completed.


Ukele S.,CF Industries | Carnine S.,CF Industries | Singer Z.,Clariant
Ammonia Plant Safety and Related Facilities | Year: 2014

The initial startup and reduction of the High Temperature Shift (HTS) catalyst is a procedure which is performed relatively infrequently in ammonia plants. This procedure allows for a safe, controlled reduction of the HTS catalyst primarily by operating at a high S/G ratio at the Primary Reformer. A proper initial startup is important to ensure that the catalyst is able to achieve maximum CO conversion combined with a long on-stream life. While many ammonia plants (including the CF Industries Verdigris site) have performed HTS startups with no problems, events can occur that can lead to poor catalyst performance, reduced HTS reactor efficiency, and more serious issues including loss of vessel integrity. In 2010-the CF Industries No. 1 Ammonia Plant in Verdigris, OK installed a reload of ShiftMax® 120 HTS catalyst. The reduction was deemed a success and the plant came up to normal operating rates. Upon the first detailed analysis of catalyst performance after startup, the HTS catalyst CO conversion was less than expected. This trend continued for 1 year until the plant decided that they could not continue to operate at this HTS performance level. Upon shutdown in 2011 and subsequent analysis of initial startup process conditions after the HTS catalyst reduction, it was found that air had been inadvertently introduced into the HTS reactor with reduced catalyst. This caused a previously undetected exotherm through the catalyst bed which damaged catalyst and raised several vessel integrity questions. This paper explains the effects of the air introduction into the HTS reactor, including metallurgical concerns and steps taken to ensure proper vessel integrity and safety, the effect this event had on the HTS catalyst, and overall lessons learned.


Liddon W.C.,CF Industries | Copeland B.G.,CF Industries | Dahlstrom B.J.,Haldor Topsoe
Ammonia Plant Safety and Related Facilities | Year: 2013

This paper reviews the history of operation, project planning and execution, safety, and successful startup of an S-300 ammonia converter.

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