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Sutton K.M.C.,Roslin Institute | Hu T.,Roslin Institute | Wu Z.,Roslin Institute | Siklodi B.,CEVA PHYLAXIA Veterinary Biologicals Co. | And 2 more authors.
Developmental and Comparative Immunology | Year: 2015

A new member of the chicken TNF superfamily has recently been identified, namely receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), as have its signalling receptor, RANK, and its decoy receptor, osteoprotegerin (OPG). In mammals, RANKL and RANK are transmembrane proteins expressed on the surface of Th1 cells and dendritic cells (DC) respectively, whereas OPG is expressed as a soluble protein from osteoblasts and DC. Recombinant soluble chicken RANKL (chRANKL) forms homotrimers whereas chicken OPG (chOPG) forms homodimers, characteristic of these molecules in mammals. ChRANKL, chRANK and chOPG are expressed at the mRNA level in most tissues and organs. ChRANKL is transcriptionally regulated by Ca2+ mobilisation and enhances the mRNA expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in bone marrow-derived DC (BMDC); this is inhibited by both chOPG-Fc and soluble chRANK-Fc. However, chRANKL does not enhance the expression of cell surface markers in either BMDC or BM-derived macrophages (BMM). Furthermore, chRANKL enhances the survival of APC similar to its mammalian orthologue. © 2015.

Balka G.,Szent Istvan University | Wang X.,University of Minnesota | Olasz F.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Balint T.,National Food Chain Safety Office Veterinary Diagnostic Directorate | And 7 more authors.
Virus Research | Year: 2015

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a widespread pathogen of pigs causing significant economic losses to the swine industry. The expanding diversity of PRRSV strains makes the diagnosis, control and eradication of the disease more and more difficult. In the present study, the authors report the full genome sequencing of a type 2 PRRSV strain isolated from piglet carcasses in Hungary. Next generation sequencing was used to determine the complete genome sequence of the isolate (PRRSV-2/Hungary/102/2012). Recombination analysis performed with the available full-length genome sequences showed no evidence of such event with other known PRRSV. Unique deletions and an insertion were found in the nsp2 region of PRRSV-2/Hungary/102/2012 when it was compared to the highly virulent VR2332 and JXA-1 prototype strains. The majority of amino acid alterations in GP4 and GP5 of the virus were in the known antigenic regions suggesting an important role for immunological pressure in PRRSV-2/Hungary/102/2012 evolution. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that it belongs to lineage 1 or 2 of type 2 PRRSV. Considering the lack of related PRRSV in Europe, except for a partial sequence from Slovakia, the ancestor of PRRSV-2/Hungary/102/2012 was most probably transported from North-America. It is the first documented type 2 PRRSV isolated in Europe that is not related to the Ingelvac MLV. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Jordan I.,ProBioGen AG | John K.,ProBioGen AG | Howing K.,ProBioGen AG | Lohr V.,ProBioGen AG | And 7 more authors.
Avian Pathology | Year: 2016

Veterinary vaccines contribute to food security, interrupt zoonotic transmissions, and help to maintain overall health in livestock. Although vaccines are usually cost-effective, their adoption depends on a multitude of factors. Because poultry vaccines are usually given to birds with a short life span, very low production cost per dose is one important challenge. Other hurdles are to ensure a consistent and reliable supply of very large number of doses, and to have flexible production processes to accommodate a range of different pathogens and dosage requirements. Most poultry vaccines are currently being produced on primary avian cells derived from chicken or waterfowl embryos. This production system is associated with high costs, logistic complexities, rigid intervals between harvest and production, and supply limitations. We investigated whether the continuous cell lines Cairina retina and CR.pIX may provide a substrate independent of primary cell cultures or embryonated eggs. Viruses examined for replication in these cell lines are strains associated with, or contained in vaccines against egg drop syndrome, Marek's disease, Newcastle disease, avian influenza, infectious bursal disease and Derzsy's disease. Each of the tested viruses required the development of unique conditions for replication that are described here and can be used to generate material for in vivo efficacy studies and to accelerate transfer of the processes to larger production volumes. © 2016 Houghton Trust Ltd.

Kugler R.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Dandar E.,United Szent Istvan es Szent Laszlo Hospital Clinic | Feher E.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Jakab F.,University of Pecs | And 4 more authors.
Virus Research | Year: 2016

Avian orthoreoviruses cause various diseases in wild birds and domesticated poultry. In this study we report the detection and genomic characterization of a partridge (Perdix perdix) origin reovirus strain, D1007/2008. The virus was isolated on cell culture from acute pneumonia and infra-orbital sinusitis. The 23,497 nucleotide long genome sequence was obtained by combined use of semiconductor and capillary sequencing. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses showed that the partridge reovirus strain was related to orthoreoviruses of gallinaceous birds. In fact, five (λB, λC, μB, σC, σNS) and one (σB) out of 10 genes clustered definitely with turkey or chicken origin orthoreoviruses, respectively, whereas in the λA, μA, μNS and σA phylogenies a more distant genetic relationship was observed. Our data indicate that the identified reovirus strain is composed of a mixture of chicken and turkey orthoreovirus related alleles. This finding implies that partridges may serve as natural reservoirs for orthoreoviruses of domesticated poultry. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Palya V.,CEVA PHYLAXIA Veterinary Biologicals Co. | Kiss I.,CEVA PHYLAXIA Veterinary Biologicals Co. | Tatar-Kis T.,CEVA PHYLAXIA Veterinary Biologicals Co. | Mato T.,CEVA PHYLAXIA Veterinary Biologicals Co. | And 2 more authors.
Avian Diseases | Year: 2012

Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly contagious disease of chickens causing significant economic losses worldwide. Due to the limitation in their efficacy, current vaccination strategies against ND need improvements. This study aimed to evaluate a new-generation ND vaccine for its efficacy in providing clinical protection and reducing virus shedding after challenge. Broiler chickens were vaccinated in ovo or subcutaneously at hatch with a turkey herpesvirus-based recombinant vaccine (rHVT) expressing a key protective antigen (F glycoprotein) of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Groups of birds were challenged at 20, 27, and 40 days of age with a genotype V viscerotropic velogenic NDV strain. Protection was 57 and 81, 100 and 95, and 100 and 100 after the subsequent challenges in the in ovo and subcutaneously vaccinated chickens, respectively. Humoral immune response to vaccination could be detected from 34 wk of age. Challenge virus shedding was lower and gradually decreased over time in the vaccinated birds compared to the unvaccinated control chickens. In spite of the phylogenetic distance between the NDV F gene inserted into the vector vaccine and the challenge virus (genotype I and V, respectively), the rHVT NDV vaccine provided good clinical protection and significantly reduced challenge virus shedding. © American Association of Avian Pathologists.

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