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Rauw F.,Avian Virology and Immunology Unit | Gardin Y.,British Petroleum | Palya V.,CEVA Phylaxia | Anbari S.,Avian Virology and Immunology Unit | And 4 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2010

The continuous outbreaks of fatal Newcastle disease (ND) in commercial poultry flocks demonstrate that current vaccination strategies are not fully efficacious and should be improved by new generation of vaccines. In this context, maternally immune conventional layer chickens were vaccinated in ovo with a turkey herpesvirus recombinant expressing the fusion (F) gene of NDV (rHVT-ND) and/or at day-old with an apathogenic enterotropic live ND vaccine co-administrated or not with chitosan by oculo-nasal route. The induced vaccinal immune responses and conferred protection against a challenge with a circulating NDV velogenic viscerotropic strain were evaluated. The innovative rHVT-ND/live ND-chitosan vaccination regimen provided the best protection against mortality and morbidity as well as the strongest reduction of virus shedding that could be related to the higher measured cellular immune response and digestive antibody-mediated immunity. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Rauw F.,Avian Virology and Immunology Unit | Palya V.,CEVA Phylaxia | Van Borm S.,Avian Virology and Immunology Unit | Welby S.,Avian Virology and Immunology Unit | And 8 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2011

In this study, we have compared the protection afforded by a recombinant turkey herpesvirus vaccine expressing the H5 gene from a clade 2.2 H5N1 strain (rHVT-H5) and a Mexican-origin H5N2 inactivated vaccine, alone or in combination, against two antigenically divergent H5N1 Egyptian strains isolated in 2007 and 2008. Our results confirm the existence of a major antigenic drift among the Egyptian H5N1 strains such that, although protection against the " classical" 2007 HPAI H5N1 Egyptian strain could be obtained with both types of vaccines, only vaccination with the rHVT-H5 vaccine protected against challenge with the " variant" 2008 HPAI H5N1 Egyptian strain. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Rauw F.,Avian Virology and Immunology Unit | Palya V.,CEVA Phylaxia | Gardin Y.,British Petroleum | Tatar-Kis T.,CEVA Phylaxia | And 3 more authors.
Avian Diseases | Year: 2012

In countries where avian influenza has become endemic, early vaccination of layer pullets or broilers with classical inactivated vaccines at the hatchery is no longer an option because of interference with passive immunity indirectly induced by the necessary vaccination of the breeders. On the other hand, injection of thousands of chicks from 7 to 10 days old on farms has been determined to be unreliable and, therefore, poorly efficacious. For these reasons, interest has arisen regarding a newly developed live recombinant vector vaccine based on a turkey herpesvirus (HVT) expressing the H5 gene from a clade 2.2 H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) strain (rHVT-H5), which in theory is capable of breakthrough passive immunity to both the vector (HVT) and the insert (H5) and is consequently applicable at the hatchery. The objectives of this trial were to evaluate the impact of maternally derived antibodies (MDAs) specific to H5N1 on the immunity and the efficacy (protection and virus shedding) of different vaccination programs including rHVT-H5 and inactivated H5N1 and H5N2 vaccines applied alone or in combination. Therefore, broilers carrying MDAs against both HVT and Asian H5N1 HPAIV were vaccinated on the first day of age with rHVT-H5, with or without boosting vaccination by an inactivated vaccine after 10 days. The different groups were challenged with two antigenically highly divergent Egyptian clade 2.2.1 H5N1 HPAIVs at 4 wk of age. Protection against challenge was compared with unvaccinated birds or vaccinated birds without MDAs. Between 70% and 90% clinical protection could be observed in the vaccinated groups possessing MDAs, indicating no or very low interference of MDAs with vaccination. Results regarding clinical protection, humoral, cell-mediated, and mucosal immunity, as well as re-excretion of challenge virus are presented and discussed.


Rauw F.,Avian Virology and Immunology Unit | Gardin Y.,CEVA Sante Animale | Palya V.,CEVA Phylaxia | van den Berg T.,Avian Virology and Immunology Unit | Lambrecht B.,Avian Virology and Immunology Unit
Avian Pathology | Year: 2014

The recurrent outbreaks of fatal Newcastle disease (ND) in commercial poultry flocks throughout the world indicate that routine vaccinations are failing to sufficiently induce the high levels of immunity necessary to control ND. There is a need for vaccination programmes that could be initiated at 1-day-old for mass application and which would induce a long-lasting immunity, with no need for a booster vaccination at a later age. In this context, the duration of immunity delivered by a vaccination programme including a recombinant herpesvirus of turkeys expressing the F gene of ND virus (rHVT-ND) and live ND vaccine at 1-day-old was compared with a classical programme that included a conventional live and an inactivated ND vaccine at the same age in commercial layer chickens. The humoral, cell-mediated and local immunity were followed weekly and birds were challenged with a viscerotropic velogenic ND virus strain at 6 and 10 weeks of age. We determined that immunity induced by the vaccination programme involving the rHVT-ND vaccine was more protective than that provided by the conventional vaccine-based regime. This might be related to a T-helper type 1 (Th1) cellular-driven immunological response, in contrast to the T-helper type 2 (Th2) humoral-oriented immune response provided by the current conventional vaccine-based vaccination programmes. © 2013 Houghton Trust Ltd.


Banyai K.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Palya V.,CEVA Phylaxia | Denes B.,Veterinary Diagnostic Directorate | Glavits R.,Veterinary Diagnostic Directorate | And 8 more authors.
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2015

Avipoxviruses are emerging pathogens affecting over 200 bird species worldwide. Genetic characterization of avipoxviruses is performed by analysis of genomic regions encoding the 4b and DNA polymerase. Whole genome sequence data are limited to a few avipoxvirus isolates. Based on phylogenetic analysis three major genetic clades are distinguished. In this study we report a novel avipoxvirus strain causing skin lesions in domestic turkey. The virus was identified in Hungary during 2011 in a flock of turkey vaccinated against avipoxvirus infection. The genome of the isolated strain, TKPV-HU1124/2011, was uniquely short (~188.5. kbp) and was predicted to encode reduced number of proteins. Phylogenetic analysis of the genes encoding the 4b and DNA polymerase separated TKPV-HU1124/2011 from other turkey origin avipoxviruses and classified it into a new genetic clade. This study permits new insight into the genetic and genomic heterogeneity of avipoxviruses and pinpoints the importance of strain diversity in vaccine efficacy. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | CEVA Phylaxia, Hungarian Academy of Sciences and Veterinary Diagnostic Directorate
Type: | Journal: Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases | Year: 2015

Avipoxviruses are emerging pathogens affecting over 200 bird species worldwide. Genetic characterization of avipoxviruses is performed by analysis of genomic regions encoding the 4b and DNA polymerase. Whole genome sequence data are limited to a few avipoxvirus isolates. Based on phylogenetic analysis three major genetic clades are distinguished. In this study we report a novel avipoxvirus strain causing skin lesions in domestic turkey. The virus was identified in Hungary during 2011 in a flock of turkey vaccinated against avipoxvirus infection. The genome of the isolated strain, TKPV-HU1124/2011, was uniquely short (188.5kbp) and was predicted to encode reduced number of proteins. Phylogenetic analysis of the genes encoding the 4b and DNA polymerase separated TKPV-HU1124/2011 from other turkey origin avipoxviruses and classified it into a new genetic clade. This study permits new insight into the genetic and genomic heterogeneity of avipoxviruses and pinpoints the importance of strain diversity in vaccine efficacy.


Soejoedono R.D.,Bogor Agricultural University | Murtini S.,Bogor Agricultural University | Palya V.,CEVA Phylaxia | Felfoldi B.,CEVA Phylaxia | And 2 more authors.
Avian Diseases | Year: 2012

The swift evolution rate of avian influenza (AI) H5N1 virus demands constant efforts to update inactivated vaccines to match antigenically with the emerging new field virus strains. Recently, a recombinant turkey herpesvirus (rHVT)-AI vaccine, rHVT-H5, expressing the HA gene of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 clade 2.2 A/Swan/Hungary/499/2006 strain inserted into FC-126 strain of HVT vector, has been developed to combat current threats in poultry industry. Here, we present the results of two trials where rHVT-H5 was tested alone or in combination with inactivated H5N1 vaccines (the latter vaccines contained antigens produced by using a clade 2.1.3 HPAI H5N1 virus A/Ck/WestJava-Nagrak/2007 in the first trial or mixture of antigen produced by strain A/Ck/WestJava-Nagrak/2007 and A/Ck/Banten-Tangerang/2010 bivalent vaccine for second trial) in broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) carrying maternally derived antibodies to H5N1 and then challenged with Indonesian HPAI H5N1 field isolates. The effectiveness of vaccination was evaluated on the basis of clinical protection (morbidity and mortality) and measurement of virus shedding after challenge. Immune response to vaccination was followed by serology. In the first experiment, chickens were vaccinated at the day of hatch with rHVT-H5 alone (Group 1) or combined with inactivated vaccine at day old (Group 2) or at 10 days of age (Group 3). The chickens along with nonvaccinated hatch-mates were challenged at 28 days of age with the HPAI H5N1 field isolate clade 2.1.3 A/Chicken/WestJava-Subang/29/2007. Eighty, 100%, and 80% clinical protection was recorded in Group 1, 2, and 3, respectively. A similar experiment was performed a second time, but the chicks in Group 3 received the inactivated vaccine earlier, at 7 days of age. Challenge was performed at 28 days of age using a different H5N1 isolate, clade 2.1.3 A/Ck/Purwakarta-Cilingga/142/10. Clinical protection achieved in the second trial was 95%, 75%, and 90% in Group 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Shedding of challenge virus was significantly lower in the vaccinated groups compared with controls in both experiments. Vaccinated birds developed hemagglutination inhibition antibody response to H5N1 by the time of challenge. These experiments confirmed that the rHVT-H5 vaccine applied alone or in combination with inactivated H5N1 vaccines could provide high level (>80%) clinical protection against divergent HPAI H5N1 field isolates after single immunization by 4 wk of age and a significant reduction in the excretion of challenge virus.


De Vriese J.,Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Center | Steensels M.,Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Center | Palya V.,CEVA Phylaxia | Gardin Y.,CEVA Sante Animale | And 4 more authors.
Avian Diseases | Year: 2010

Systematic vaccination can be applied when a disease has become enzootic in a country or region. The final goal of the approach is to control or eradicate the disease within the country. This is a long-term vaccination plan that could be applied nationwide to all commercial and backyard poultry. However, after several months of vaccination in enzootic areas, maternally derived antibody (MDA) is present in young chicks, providing some protection and/or interference with vaccination. The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of protection afforded by MDA against challenge with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV), and its suspected interference with current inactivated vaccines in broilers under controlled laboratory conditions. In the first set of experiments, broilers were vaccinated with inactivated vaccines containing H5N2 subtype antigens in the presence or absence of homologue MDAs and challenged with a clade 2.2 H5N1 HPAIV. In the second set of experiments, day-old broilers, either with or without avian influenza MDA, received a regular-type monovalent H5N2 AI vaccine (0.5 ml) or a concentrated (0.2 ml) AI-Newcastle disease virus combined inactivated vaccine subcutaneously. They were then challenged at 11 or 35 days of age. In conclusion, our results indicate that protection induced by day-old administration of inactivated vaccine (regular or concentrated) in the presence or absence of MDA to H5N2 AIV induces poor protection against challenge with H5N1 HPAIV and should not be recommended. Based on our results, vaccination of MDA-positive chickens at a later age (10 days) seems to be a valuable recommendation, although MDAs may still interfere with vaccination to a lesser extent because they are present up to 3 wk posthatch. Therefore, in areas with high infection pressure, when possible, two vaccinations are recommended for optimal protection. Also, it might be advisable to take into account day-old AI MDA titers when one is determining the optimal age of vaccination. © 2010 American Association of Avian Pathologists.


Rauw F.,Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Center | Van Borm S.,Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Center | Welby S.,Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Center | Ngabirano E.,Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Center | And 3 more authors.
Avian Pathology | Year: 2015

The purpose of this study was to look for a reliable molecular method for confirmation of uptake of recombinant turkey herpesvirus vaccine against Newcastle disease (rHVT-F) and for use as a valuable prediction tool of Newcastle disease virus (NDV)-specific immune response in chickens deprived of maternally derived antibody (MDA). A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time qPCR) specific to rHVT-F was developed. The method was applied to various tissue samples taken from specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens experimentally inoculated at day-old with one dose of rHVT-F vaccine over a 6-week period. Among the tested tissues, the rHVT-F vaccine was detected predominantly in the bursa of Fabricius (BF) and the lung for the first week, followed by a progressive decline from 9 days onwards. Then, an increase of genome load was observed in the feather follicles (FF) with a peak at 2 weeks, rising to a level almost 103-fold greater than in the other tissues. Importantly, the rHVT-F genome load in FF appeared to be strongly correlated to the humoral immunity specific to NDV as evaluated by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and NDV-specific IgG, IgM and IgA ELISAs. This is the first report of quantification of rHVT-F vaccine in FF and its correlation with the induction of ND-specific immune response in chickens with no MDA. Our data indicate that the application of this real-time qPCR assay on FF samples taken from chickens in the field may be used to confirm rHVT-F vaccine administration and uptake with the important added benefit of offering a non-disruptive sampling procedure. © 2015 Houghton Trust Ltd.

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