Impact of climate changes on the incidence of tick-borne encephalitis in the Czech Republic in 1982-2011 [Vliv klimatických změn na výskyt onemocnění klíšťovou encefalitidou v letech 1982-2011 v České republice]
Kriz B.,Statni Zdravotni ustav |
Kott I.,Cesky Hydrometeorologicky ustav |
Daniel M.,Statni Zdravotni ustav |
Vrablik T.,Cesky Hydrometeorologicky ustav |
Benes C.,Statni Zdravotni ustav
Epidemiologie, Mikrobiologie, Imunologie | Year: 2015
Study objective: To analyse the impact of climate changes on the increase in human cases of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in three high-incidence regions of the Czech Republic over the period 1982 to 2011. Material and methods: Data on TBE cases were derived from the national reporting system EPIDAT. TBE is a reportable infectious disease in the Czech Republic. This study analysed data on TBE cases from three high-incidence regions that vary relatively widely in the average altitude and biotope types. The meteorological data for the study period, obtained from 26 stations of the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI) which make standard meteorological measurements, were checked for correctness. The average altitude was determined for each study region. The STATISTICA 6 software was used for the basic statistical analysis (lit.). Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to assess the strength of the relationship between the variables and the 5% level was set as the criterion of statistical significance. The impact of the time lag between the epidemiological and meteorological quantities was also tested. Results: The impact of the meteorological quantities temperature and precipitation rate on the occurrence of 6,229 TBE cases in three administrative regions varying in biotopes, altitude, and epidemiological characteristics of TBE infection was assessed. When evaluating the 30-year period 1982-2011 year by year in three regions, a significant correlation was found between TBE onset and average air temperature in 100%, 90%, and 80% of years, with 11-20-day intervals to the onset of the disease. A significant correlation between the incidence of TBE cases and the precipitation rate was observed for 40%, 43%, and 40% of years. When considering the summary results for the overall study period divided into three seasons (March-April, May-June, July-November), a significant correlation was identified between TBE incidence and temperature in all three seasons, with 0-30-day intervals to the onset, in all three regions. When considering the relationships between TBE incidence, air temperature, and precipitation rate for the overall study period divided into three seasons (March-April, May-June, July-November), a significant correlation was identified between TBE incidence and temperature in all three regions. A correlation between TBE incidence and precipitation rate was only found for the period May-November. Moreover, the impact of air temperature and precipitation rate in the second half of the previous year on TBE incidence in the first half of the following year was tested. A positive correlation between air temperature and TBE incidence in the first half of the following year was found in three regions for 79.3%, 62.1%, and 48.3% of years of the study period. A positive correlation between precipitation rate and TBE incidence was only found in these regions for 3.4%, 17.2%, and 6.9% of years of the study period. Conclusions: From the study results, it follows that air temperature had a major impact on TBE incidence in the regions studied. A correlation between TBE incidence and precipitation rate was found clearly less often, mostly in summer and autumn months. Air temperature and precipitation rate in the second half of the previous year did not have a major impact on TBE incidence in the first half of the following year. © 2015, Czech Medical Association J.E. Purkyne.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENV.2013.6.2-1 | Award Amount: 11.66M | Year: 2014
MARS will support managers and policy makers in the practical implementation of the WFD, of related legislation and of the Blueprint to Safeguard Europes Water Resources by conducting new research and synthesising existing knowledge concerning effects and management of multiple stressors in surface water and groundwater bodies; by advising the 3rd RMBP cycle and the revision of the WFD; and by developing new integrated tools for diagnosing and predicting multiple stressors in water resource management. The consortium includes 19 research institutes and five water boards and environment agencies. MARS will engage with ongoing and finalised European initiatives addressing related topics, thus acting as an integrating project. Work will be organised at the scales of water bodies, river basins and Europe; at each scale there is a direct link to water managers and decision makers. Nested within the scale structure, we will employ a suite of methods: flume and mesocosm experiments to better understand the effects of selected stressor combinations with a focus on extremes and hydrological stress; linkage of abiotic and biotic models to predict effects of stressor combinations at a river basin scale; large-scale data analysis employing existing databases, but including additional variables, to gain a Europe-wide overview of stress, status and ecosystem services. MARS will be composed of eight workpackages (WPs). While WP1 will be responsible for overall coordination, WP2 will provide tools, concepts and scenarios for the other WPs. WPs 3-5 will analyse and predict multiple stressor-impact relationships on three scales: water bodies (WP3), river basins (WP4) and Europe (WP5); the results will be synthesised across scales by WP6. WP7 will generate a wiki information system and produce or improve tools addressing the three scales. WP8 will communicate with river basin districts and Common Implementation Strategy (CIS) groups and will advise the WFD revision.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: SPA-2007-1.1-01;SPA-2007-1.1-02 | Award Amount: 15.86M | Year: 2009
MACC (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate) is designed to meet the requirements that have been expressed for the pilot Core GMES Atmospheric Service. The project has been prepared by the consortia of the FP6 project GEMS and the GSE project PROMOTE, whose core service lines will provide the starting point for MACC. From mid-2009 MACC will continue, improve, extend, integrate and validate these service lines, so that the overall MACC system is ready near the end of 2011 for qualification as the operational GMES Atmospheric Core Service. MACC will prepare the core service in terms of implementation, sustained operation and availability. It will maintain and further develop the efficiency and resilience of the end-to-end pre-operational system, and will refine the scientific basis and quality of the products of the system. It will ensure that its service lines best meet both the requirements of downstream-service providers and end users at the European, national and local levels, and the requirements of the global scientific user community. The service lines will cover air quality, climate forcing, stratospheric ozone and solar radiation. MACC will deliver operational products and information that support the establishment and implementation of European policy and wider international programmes. It will acquire and assimilate observational data to provide sustained real-time and retrospective global monitoring of greenhouse gases, aerosols and reactive gases such as tropospheric ozone and nitrogen dioxide. It will provide daily global forecasts of atmospheric composition, detailed air-quality forecasts and assessments for Europe, and key information on long range transport of atmospheric pollutants. It will provide comprehensive web-based graphical products and gridded data on which downstream services may be based. Feedback will be given to space agencies and providers of in-situ data on the quality of their data and on future observational requirements.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INFRAIA-1-2014-2015 | Award Amount: 10.13M | Year: 2015
ACTRIS-2 addresses the scope of integrating state-of-the-art European ground-based stations for long term observations of aerosols, clouds and short lived gases capitalizing work of FP7-ACTRIS. ACTRIS-2 aims to achieve the construction of a user-oriented RI, unique in the EU-RI landscape. ACTRIS-2 provides 4-D integrated high-quality data from near-surface to high altitude (vertical profiles and total-column), relevant to climate and air-quality research. ACTRIS-2 develops and implements, in a large network of stations in Europe and beyond, observational protocols that permit harmonization of collected data and their dissemination. ACTRIS-2 offers networking expertise, upgraded calibration services, training of users, trans-national access to observatories and calibration facilities, virtual access to high-quality data products. Through joint research activities, ACTRIS-2 develops new integration tools that will produce scientific or technical progresses reusable in infrastructures, thus shaping future observation strategies. Innovation in instrumentation is one of the fundamental building blocks of ACTRIS-2. Associated partnership with SMEs stimulates development of joint-ventures addressing new technologies for use in atmospheric observations. Target user-groups in ACTRIS-2 comprise a wide range of communities worldwide. End-users are institutions involved in climate and air quality research, space agencies, industries, air quality agencies. ACTRIS-2 will improve systematic and timely collection, processing and distribution of data and results for use in modelling, in particular towards implementation of atmospheric and climate services. ACTRIS-2 invests substantial efforts to ensure long-term sustainability beyond the term of the project by positioning the project in both the GEO and the on-going ESFRI contexts, and by developing synergies with national initiatives.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2010-1.1.16 | Award Amount: 11.60M | Year: 2011
Climate change is for a large part governed by atmospheric processes, in particular the interaction between radiation and atmospheric components (e.g. aerosols, clouds, greenhouse and trace gases). Some of these components are also those with adverse health effects influencing air quality. Strengthening the ground-based component of the Earth Observing System for these key atmospheric variables has unambiguously been asserted in the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report and Thematic Strategy on air pollution of the EU. However, a coordinated research infrastructure for these observations is presently lacking. ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network) aims to fill this observational gap through the coordination of European ground-based network of stations equipped with advanced atmospheric probing instrumentation for aerosols, clouds and short-lived trace gases. ACTRIS is a coordinated network that contributes to: providing long-term observational data relevant to climate and air quality research produced with standardized or comparable procedures; supporting transnational access to large infrastructures strengthening collaboration in and outside the EU and access to high quality information and services to the user communities; developing new integration tools to fully exploit the use of atmospheric techniques at ground-based stations, in particular for the calibration/validation/integration of satellite sensors and for the improvement of global and regional-scale climate and air quality models. ACTRIS supports training of new users in particular young scientists in the field of atmospheric observations and promotes the development of new technologies for atmospheric observation of aerosols, clouds and trace gases through close partnership with SMEs. ACTRIS will have the essential role to support integrated research actions in Europe for building the scientific knowledge required to support policy issues on air quality and climate change.
Gebler J.,VUC Prague |
Koznarova V.,Czech University of Life Sciences |
Hajkova L.,Cesky hydrometeorologicky ustav
Listy Cukrovarnicke a Reparske | Year: 2016
The year 2015/2016 can be assessed as very successful although the values did not reach those of the previous campaign, which was historically the most successful as well as record-breaking in length. The article sums up the information on weather during the individual months of the year 2015. The text itself only comments on several values and is accompanied by tables with average or respectively summary data from the final technological, water-management, and energetical reports. There were seven sugar factories in operation, or rather five companies, similar number as during the previous years. The processing capacities ranged from 2,000 to 14,850 t/day of beet, campaign operation in the Czech Republic lasted from 21 September 2015 to 16 January 2016. The average sugar content of the processed beet reached 18.01%. The total amount of the processed standard beet was 4.017 mil. t, sugar 3.392 mil. t. The total physical production of sugar in the Czech Republic (i.e. production for the Czech Republic and foreign production, made-to-order, outside the Czech Republic) corresponds to the processing capability of 521,180 t, production only in the Czech Republic was 498,974 t. The biological sugar yield was 10.3 t ha. Apart from the production of white sugar, certified organic sugar and fermentation alcohol (bioethanol) were also produced. © 2016, Listy Cukrovarnicke a Reparske. All rights reserved.
Fukalova P.,Cesky Hydrometeorologicky Ustav |
Pokladnikova H.,Cesky Hydrometeorologicky Ustav
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis | Year: 2010
This article is focused on the land use development in the cadastral area Žabčice since the mid of the 20th century. Žabčice lies in South Moravia at a distance of less than 25 km south from Brno and its land area is 817 ha. This selected cadastre is part of University Agricultural Enterprise (UAE) Žabčice area and has been chosen because of the relevance for the MUAF in Brno. Dominant activity in this cadastral area is agriculture. The land use was evaluated from 1950's to the present time. According to availability of suitable map underlays three basic time profiles (1953,1990 and 2007) were chosen. For evaluation of land use development following materials were used: archival aerial photographs, ortophotos, basic and cadastral maps, archival documents. Field survey of selected area was also necessary. Thirteen land use categories have been identified as an outcome of interpretation of maps. These categories were compared by methods of comparative measurement of areas. The area of particular land use categories in landscape with regard to land area of whole model area in hectares and further their percentage representation were found out. Data processing and all analyses were done in GIS environment (software ArcGIS 9.1). In 2007 (compared with 1953) forest area had increased by about 1 %, orchards by 2 %, vineyards by 12 % and the increase of built-up and other areas by 8 % was also evident. The area of following categories decreased: arable land by 21 %, TTP by 2 %, garden by 1 %. The most significant trend in the cadastral Žabčice is decrease of arable land area recorded during the whole period. Other trends are following: the increase of vineyard areas, smaller increase of the orchard area and increase of built-up and other areas. In the context of political and socio-economic factors, non-forest vegetation was negatively marked. These changes correspond with changes in Czech Republic in the same time interval.
Kliment Z.,Katedra Fyzicke Geografie A Geoekologie |
Matouskova M.,Katedra Fyzicke Geografie A Geoekologie |
Ledvinka O.,Cesky Hydrometeorologicky Ustav |
Kralovec V.,Katedra Fyzicke Geografie A Geoekologie
Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics | Year: 2011
The main aim of this work is to evaluate the development of rainfall-runoff regime in selected river basins of the Šumava Mountains (Bohemian Forest), the Jeseníky Mountains and the Krušné Mountains (Ore Mountains) in the last 50 years. Besides the identification of inhomogeneity in time series of mean discharges, rainfall amounts, temperature and snow cover data, the work deals with an analysis of trends using annual and monthly data. Different methodological tools for identification of changes and trends in hydro-climatic time series have been introduced in this study, especially different methods of statistic testing and an application of Mann-Kendall seasonal test. The results have been compared not only from the point of view of the methods applied here, but as well from the viewpoint of geographical difference of the mentioned areas.
Gebler J.,Vuc Prague |
Koznarova V.,Czech University of Life Sciences |
Hajkova L.,Cesky hydrometeorologicky ustav
Listy Cukrovarnicke a Reparske | Year: 2015
The article presents assessment and campaign results of the year 2014/2015. Weather during 2014 could be viewed as ideal during the whole vegetation period in Bohemia and as less favorable in Moravia, which resulted in significantly lower sugar content. These differences could be seen already during the pre-vegetative period when the precipitations were 235% and 46% of long-term average; by the end of autumn, the precipitation rate changed (30% and 310%). The end of the year was characterized as warm, deviation of average annual air temperature from the long-term average was +0.8 °C. Sugar beet processing in Czech sugar factories was the longest since 1918 and took 178.5 days (from 8 September 2014 to 3 March 2015). Average output was 111%, which represents daily processing capacity in individual factories from 2,133 t d–1 to 20,398 t d–1 of sugar beet. Average sugar content was 15.98% (it was within 15.14–17.40%). The amount of produced sugar was 595,440 t in white sugar value. Total of 4.2 mil. t of sugar beet and 314 thousand t of sugar beet for bio-sugar was processed. The main investment projects before the campaign aimed at boosting storage capacities for sugar (three silos for total 90 thousand t) and molasses (35 thousand m3) and at improvement of operation and the environment (pulpress, central dust collector, WWTP for sugar factory and distillery, candle filter and new carbonator with Richter pipes as well as actualization of the software and process controlling of several technological stations). Failure of the Krupp India centrifuge can be considered a blessing in disguise. © 2015, Listy Cukrovarnicke a Reparske. All rights reserved.
Budik L.,Cesky Hydrometeorologicky Ustav
APLIMAT 2015 - 14th Conference on Applied Mathematics, Proceedings | Year: 2015
The author deals with superposition of cumulative frequency curves of flows in junctions in this paper. This is used more common distribution than the LN3 distribution. Than the superposition problem must be solved numerically because of impossibility to obtain the density function. Such estimates are the basic backgrounds for nearly all of hydrological reports produced by Czech Hydrometeorological Institute.