Ventura S.P.M.,University of Aveiro |
Gurbisz M.,Dublin City University |
Ghavre M.,Dublin City University |
Ghavre M.,Engineering and Materials Science Center |
And 7 more authors.
ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering | Year: 2013
A new class of low bacterial and algal toxicity imidazolium and pyridinium halide ionic liquids (ILs), produced by a short synthesis from substituted mandelic acid derivatives is disclosed. Melting points for most of the ILs were above or close to 100 °C; however, one imidazolium example has a glass transition temperature below room temperature (RT; -3.3 °C). The series of 8 ILs enables an investigation of toxicity on modifying the heterocycle, aromatic ring substitution, ester group, and proximity of cation to aromatic ring present within mandelic acid constituent. Two pyridinium salts, methyl 2-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-pyridinium acetate, bromide salt and methyl 2-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-(2-pyridiniumacetoxy)acetate, bromide salt have low toxicity to all bacteria strains (including Vibrio fischeri), and freshwater green algae (C. Vulgaris and P. subcapitata) screened. All eight pyridinium and imidazolium ILs have low toxicity to Gram-positive (B. subtilis) and Gram-negative (E. coli, P. fluorescens, P. putida (CP1), and P. putgida (KT 2440)) bacteria strains, although a significant range in IC50 values was obtained. Mandelate derived ILs have EC50 (C. Vulgaris and P. subcapitata) values 103-107 higher (less toxic) than other C14-C18 ionic liquids previously reported. © 2013 American Chemical Society.
Santos F.,University VigoOurense Spain |
Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans | Year: 2016
La Guajira upwelling system has shown a moderate cooling (∼-0.05°C dec-1) over the period 1982-2014 for the months with strong upwelling (JFM). This contrasts with the general warming observed for most of the Caribbean region (∼0.25°C dec-1) over the same period. Cooling is in good agreement with the upwelling increase (∼0.04 m2s-1dec-1) observed in the region during winter months, although the position of the peaks in upwelling and SST trends does not coincide exactly due to the presence of the Caribbean Coastal Undercurrent. © 2016. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.
Catry P.,Eco ethology Research Unit |
Almeida A.,Eco ethology Research Unit |
Lecoq M.,Eco ethology Research Unit |
Granadeiro J.P.,CESAM |
And 2 more authors.
Polar Biology | Year: 2011
The Falkland skua Stercorarius antarctica antarctica is a poorly known seabird. Demographic studies at the largest known colony of this taxon revealed a sharp population decline (47%) in just 5 years, between 2004 and 2009. The decline seems to be linked with a chronic low breeding success in the recent years and is consistent with a situation of virtually zero recruitment. The ultimate causes of the decline are, as of yet, unknown, but plausible explanations are examined and discussed. The reported population trends should be the cause of some concern, and more research and monitoring are desired. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.
Catry P.,Eco ethology Research Unit |
Granadeiro J.P.,Servico do Parque Natural da Madeira |
Ramos J.,CESAM |
Phillips R.A.,University of Coimbra |
Oliveira P.,Natural Environment Research Council
Journal of Ornithology | Year: 2011
It has long been known that birds change their behaviour, reproductive performance and survival as they mature, including in the first few years after recruitment into the breeding population. However, and contrasting with the description of patterns of actuarial and reproductive senescence in later years, there are surprisingly few studies documenting changes in behaviour in old individuals. Such studies are important, as birds provide particularly interesting models for studying the biology of senescence. It has been suggested that, unlike mammals, birds may remain physically fit until an advanced age, yet this has limited empirical support. In this paper, we used activity (immersion) loggers to show that old (>26 years) Cory's Shearwaters Calonectris diomedea are less active when foraging at sea, spend more time resting on the water and have a smaller number of take-offs and landings during darkness, when compared to experienced mid-aged individuals (13-20 years old). Old individuals also tended to have reduced immune response against an experimental challenge using phytohaemagglutinin. These results are in line with observed reductions in activity levels with age in a wide range of non-avian taxa, and may suggest that old seabirds are physically less fit than younger individuals. Alternatively, old birds might simply be more experienced and their reduction in activity might reflect a strategic regulation of investment in different activities. Our study illustrates the potential for gaining insights into avian aging patterns and processes by looking into the behaviour of model organisms. We therefore encourage more research focusing on behavioural parameters that may reflect variations in physical condition or strategic choices, during both the breeding and non-breeding seasons. © 2010 Dt. Ornithologen-Gesellschaft e.V.
Cesam | Date: 2008-07-28
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