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Tulua, Colombia

A detailed review was published in 2004 on the therapeutic properties of the medications used in the treatment of bipolar disorders (Tamayo, JM et al. Actas Esp Psiquiatr 2004;32(Supl. 1):3-17). At the time it could be concluded that although mood stabilizers (euthymics) share some action mechanisms, they are also significantly different from each other with respect to their therapeutic properties in the various phases of bipolar disorders. This led to a proposed change in their generic classification as "mood stabilizers" to a new classification that includes: antimanic medications, partial mood stabilizers, and euthymics. Since then, several randomized, double-blind studies and meta-analyses that explore the effectiveness and tolerability of these medications have been published. This updated review aims to assess the validity of the proposed classification in the light of new evidence. Source

Ordonez J.E.,HEMO Group | Orozco J.J.,CES University
BMC Infectious Diseases

Background: Nowadays, there are two vaccination strategies in Colombia to prevent pneumococcal diseases in people over 50 years. Our aim is to estimate cost-effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 13-valent (PCV13) versus pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine 23-valent (PPSV23) to prevent pneumococcal diseases and their related mortality in people over 50 years old in Colombia.Methods: A Markov model was developed with national data, including pneumococcal serotypes distribution in Colombia between 2005 and 2010. Vaccination of a cohort was simulated and a five year time horizon was assumed. Analysis was done from a perspective of a third party payer. Direct costs were provided by a national insurance company; sensitive univariate and probabilistic analysis were done for epidemiological and clinical effectiveness parameters and costs.Results: PCV13 avoids 3 560 deaths by pneumococcal infections versus PPSV23 and 4 255 deaths versus no vaccine. PCV13 prevents 79 633 cases by all-cause pneumonia versus PPSV23 and 81 468 cases versus no vaccine. Total costs (healthcare and vaccines costs) with PCV13 would be U.S. $ 97,587,113 cheaper than PPSV23 and it would save U.S. $ 145,196,578 versus no vaccine.Conclusion: PCV13 would be a cost-saving strategy in the context of a mass vaccination program in Colombia to people over 50 years old because it would reduce burden of disease and specific mortality by pneumococcal diseases, besides, it saves money versus PPSV23. © 2014 Ordóñez and Orozco; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Bertet K.,University of La Rochelle | Monjardet B.,CES University
Theoretical Computer Science

The notion of dependencies between "attributes" arises in many areas such as relational databases, data analysis, data-mining, formal concept analysis, knowledge structures .... Formalization of dependencies leads to the notion of so-called full implicational systems (or full family of functional dependencies) which is in one-to-one correspondence with the other significant notions of closure operator and of closure system. An efficient generation of a full implicational system (or a closure system) can be performed from equivalent implicational systems and in particular from the bases for such systems, for example, the so-called canonical basis. This paper shows the equality between five other bases originating from different works and satisfying various properties (in particular they are unit implicational systems). The three main properties of this unique basis are the directness, canonical and minimal properties, whence the name canonical direct unit implicational basis given to this unit implicational system. The paper also gives a nice characterization of this canonical basis and makes precise its link with the prime implicants of the Horn function associated to a closure operator. It concludes that it is necessary to compare more closely related works made independently, and with a different terminology, in order to take advantage of the really new results in these works. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Basili M.,University of Siena | Chateauneuf A.,CES University
International Journal of Approximate Reasoning

This paper introduces a multiple quantile utility model of Cumulative Prospect Theory in an ambiguous setting. We show a representation theorem in which a prospect is valued by a composite value function. The composite value function is able to represent asymmetric attitude on extreme events and a rational prudence on ordinary events. © 2011 Published by Elsevier Inc. Source

Cohen M.,CES University
Mathematical Population Studies

The classical expected utility model of decision under risk has been criticized from an experimental point of view (Allais’ paradox) as well as for its restrictive lack of explanatory power. The Rank-Dependent Expected Utility model answers some of these criticisms. The decision maker is characterized by two functions: a utility function on consequences measuring preferences over sure outcomes and a probability weighting function measuring the subjective weighting of probabilities. The model allows for more diversified types of behavior: it is consistent with the behavior revealed by the Allais paradox; the decision maker could dislike risk (prefer its expectation to any lottery) without necessarily avoiding any increase in risk; diminishing marginal utility may coexist with “weak” risk-seeking attitudes; decision makers with the same utility function may differ in their choices between lotteries when they have different probability weighting functions; furthermore, the same decision maker may have different, context-dependent, subjective beliefs on events. © 2015, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

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