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Fraser G.,Saarland University | Arcuri A.,Certus Software V and nter
Proceedings - IEEE 5th International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation, ICST 2012 | Year: 2012

Search-based techniques have been shown useful for the task of generating tests, for example in the case of object-oriented software. But, as for any meta-heuristic search, the efficiency is heavily dependent on many different factors, seeding is one such factor that may strongly influence this efficiency. In this paper, we evaluate new and typical strategies to seed the initial population as well as to seed values introduced during the search when generating tests for object-oriented code. We report the results of a large empirical analysis carried out on 20 Java projects (for a total of 1,752 public classes). Our experiments show with strong statistical confidence that, even for a testing tool that is already able to achieve high coverage, the use of appropriate seeding strategies can further improve performance. © 2012 IEEE. Source


Fraser G.,Saarland University | Arcuri A.,Certus Software V and nter
Proceedings - International Conference on Software Engineering | Year: 2012

Several promising techniques have been proposed to automate different tasks in software testing, such as test data generation for object-oriented software. However, reported studies in the literature only show the feasibility of the proposed techniques, because the choice of the employed artifacts in the case studies (e.g., software applications) is usually done in a non-systematic way. The chosen case study might be biased, and so it might not be a valid representative of the addressed type of software (e.g., internet applications and embedded systems). The common trend seems to be to accept this fact and get over it by simply discussing it in a threats to validity section. In this paper, we evaluate search-based software testing (in particular the EvoSuite tool) when applied to test data generation for open source projects. To achieve sound empirical results, we randomly selected 100 Java projects from SourceForge, which is the most popular open source repository (more than 300,000 projects with more than two million registered users). The resulting case study not only is very large (8,784 public classes for a total of 291,639 bytecode level branches), but more importantly it is statistically sound and representative for open source projects. Results show that while high coverage on commonly used types of classes is achievable, in practice environmental dependencies prohibit such high coverage, which clearly points out essential future research directions. To support this future research, our SF100 case study can serve as a much needed corpus of classes for test generation. © 2012 IEEE. Source


Carlier M.,French Institute for Research in Computer Science and Automation | Gotlieb A.,Certus Software V and nter
Proceedings - International Conference on Tools with Artificial Intelligence, ICTAI | Year: 2011

Constraint solving over floating-point numbers is an emerging topic that found interesting applications in software analysis and testing. Even for IEEE-754 compliant programs, correct reasoning over floating-point computations is challenging and requires dedicated constraint solving approaches to be developed. Recent advances indicate that numerical properties of floating-point numbers can be used to efficiently prune the search space. In this paper, we reformulate the Marre and Michel property over floating-point addition/subtraction constraint to ease its implementation in real-world floating-point constraint solvers. We also generalize the property to the case of multiplication/division in order to benefit from its improvements in more cases. © 2011 IEEE. Source


Fraser G.,University of Sheffield | Arcuri A.,Certus Software V and nter
ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology | Year: 2014

Research on software testing produces many innovative automated techniques, but because software testing is by necessity incomplete and approximate, any new technique faces the challenge of an empirical assessment. In the past, we have demonstrated scientific advance in automated unit test generation with the EvoSuite tool by evaluating it on manually selected open-source projects or examples that represent a particular problem addressed by the underlying technique. However, demonstrating scientific advance is not necessarily the same as demonstrating practical value; even if EvoSuite worked well on the software projects we selected for evaluation, it might not scale up to the complexity of real systems. Ideally, one would use large "real-world" software systems to minimize the threats to external validity when evaluating research tools. However, neither choosing such software systems nor applying research prototypes to them are trivial tasks. In this article we present the results of a large experiment in unit test generation using the EvoSuite tool on 100 randomly chosen open-source projects, the 10 most popular open-source projects according to the SourceForge Web site, seven industrial projects, and 11 automatically generated software projects. The study confirms that EvoSuite can achieve good levels of branch coverage (on average, 71% per class) in practice. However, the study also exemplifies how the choice of software systems for an empirical study can influence the results of the experiments, which can serve to inform researchers to make more conscious choices in the selection of software system subjects. Furthermore, our experiments demonstrate how practical limitations interfere with scientific advances, branch coverage on an unbiased sample is affected by predominant environmental dependencies. The surprisingly large effect of such practical engineering problems in unit testing will hopefully lead to a larger appreciation of work in this area, thus supporting transfer of knowledge from software testing research to practice. © 2014 ACM. Source


Fraser G.,University of Sheffield | Arcuri A.,Certus Software V and nter
IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering | Year: 2013

Not all bugs lead to program crashes, and not always is there a formal specification to check the correctness of a software test's outcome. A common scenario in software testing is therefore that test data are generated, and a tester manually adds test oracles. As this is a difficult task, it is important to produce small yet representative test sets, and this representativeness is typically measured using code coverage. There is, however, a fundamental problem with the common approach of targeting one coverage goal at a time: Coverage goals are not independent, not equally difficult, and sometimes infeasible-the result of test generation is therefore dependent on the order of coverage goals and how many of them are feasible. To overcome this problem, we propose a novel paradigm in which whole test suites are evolved with the aim of covering all coverage goals at the same time while keeping the total size as small as possible. This approach has several advantages, as for example, its effectiveness is not affected by the number of infeasible targets in the code. We have implemented this novel approach in the EvoSuite tool, and compared it to the common approach of addressing one goal at a time. Evaluated on open source libraries and an industrial case study for a total of 1,741 classes, we show that EvoSuite achieved up to 188 times the branch coverage of a traditional approach targeting single branches, with up to 62 percent smaller test suites. © 1976-2012 IEEE. Source

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