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Kounkel M.,University of Michigan | Hartmann L.,University of Michigan | Loinard L.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Loinard L.,Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy | And 11 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2014

We present results from a high-sensitivity (60 μJy), large-scale (2.26 deg2) survey obtained with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array as part of the Gould's Belt Survey program. We detected 374 and 354 sources at 4.5 and 7.5 GHz, respectively. Of these, 148 are associated with previously known young stellar objects (YSOs). Another 86 sources previously unclassified at either optical or infrared wavelengths exhibit radio properties that are consistent with those of young stars. The overall properties of our sources at radio wavelengths such as their variability and radio to X-ray luminosity relation are consistent with previous results from the Gould's Belt Survey. Our detections provide target lists for follow-up Very Long Baseline Array radio observations to determine their distances as YSOs are located in regions of high nebulosity and extinction, making it difficult to measure optical parallaxes. © 2014. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved..

Downes J.J.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Mateu C.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Vivas A.K.,Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory | Calvet N.,University of Michigan | And 3 more authors.
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2014

We present the results of a survey of the low-mass star and brown dwarf population of the 25 Orionis group. Using optical photometry from the CIDA (Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomía 'Francisco J. Duarte', Mérida, Venezuela) Deep Survey of Orion, near-IR photometry from the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy and low-resolution spectroscopy obtained with Hectospec at the MMT telescope, we selected 1246 photometric candidates to low-mass stars and brown dwarfs with estimated masses within 0.02 ≲ M/M ≲ 0.8 and spectroscopically confirmed a sample of 77 low-mass stars as new members of the cluster with a mean age of ~7 Myr. We have obtained a system initial mass function of the group that can be well described by either a Kroupa power-law function with indices α3 = -1.73 ± 0.31 and α2 = 0.68 ± 0.41 in the mass ranges 0.03 ≤ M/M ≤ 0.08 and 0.08 ≤ M/M ≤ 0.5, respectively, or a Scalo lognormal function with coefficients mc = 0.21+0.02-0.02 and σ = 0.36 ± 0.03 in the mass range 0.03 ≤ M/M ≤ 0.8. From the analysis of the spatial distribution of this numerous candidate sample, we have confirmed the east-west elongation of the 25 Orionis group observed in previous works, and rule out a possible southern extension of the group. We find that the spatial distributions of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in 25 Orionis are statistically indistinguishable. Finally, we found that the fraction of brown dwarfs showing IR excesses is higher than for low-mass stars, supporting the scenario in which the evolution of circumstellar discs around the least massive objects could be more prolonged. © 2014 The Authors.

Dzib S.A.,Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy | Loinard L.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Rodriguez L.F.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Rodriguez L.F.,King Abdulaziz University | And 11 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2015

We present a multi-epoch radio study of the Taurus-Auriga star-forming complex made with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array at frequencies of 4.5 GHz and 7.5 GHz. We detect a total of 610 sources, 59 of which are related to young stellar objects (YSOs) and 18 to field stars. The properties of 56% of the young stars are compatible with non-thermal radio emission. We also show that the radio emission of more evolved YSOs tends to be more non-thermal in origin and, in general, that their radio properties are compatible with those found in other star-forming regions. By comparing our results with previously reported X-ray observations, we notice that YSOs in Taurus-Auriga follow a Güdel-Benz relation with κ = 0.03, as we previously suggested for other regions of star formation. In general, YSOs in Taurus-Auriga and in all the previous studied regions seem to follow this relation with a dispersion of 1 dex. Finally, we propose that most of the remaining sources are related with extragalactic objects but provide a list of 46 unidentified radio sources whose radio properties are compatible with a YSO nature. © 2015. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Duffau S.,University of Heidelberg | Vivas A.K.,Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory | Zinn R.,Yale University | Mendez R.A.,University of Chile | Ruiz M.T.,University of Chile
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2014

To explore the complex halo substructure that has been reported in the direction of the Virgo constellation, radial velocities and metallicities have been measured for 82 RR Lyrae stars (RRLS) that were identified by the QUEST survey. These stars are distributed over 90 square degrees of the sky, and lie from 4 to 23 kpc from the Sun. Using an algorithm for finding groups in phase space and modeling the smooth halo component in the region, we identified the 5 most significant RRLS groups, some of which were previously known or suspected. We have examined the SEKBO and the Catalina catalog of RRLS (with available spectroscopic measurements), as well as the bright QUEST RRLS sample, the catalog of Red Giant stars from the Spaghetti survey, and three recent catalogs of blue horizontal branch (BHB) stars, for stars that may be related to the QUEST RRLS groups. The most significant group of RRLS is the Virgo stellar stream (VSS) identified here as group A, which is composed of at least 10 RRLS and 3 BHB stars. It has a mean distance of 19.6 kpc and a mean radial velocity Vgsr = 128 km s-1, as estimated from its RRLS members. With the revised velocities reported here, there is no longer an offset in velocity between the RRLS in the VSS and the prominent peak in the velocities of main-sequence turnoff stars reported by other researchers in the same direction and at a similar distance (known as S297+63-20.5). The location in phase space of two other groups (F and H) suggests a possible connection with the VSS, which cannot be discarded at this point, although the turnoff colors of the VSS and group H, as identified from other works, suggest they might be composed of different populations. Two more groups, B and D, are found at mean distances of 19.0 and 5.7 kpc, and mean radial velocities of Vgsr = -94 and 32 km s-1. The latter is the more numerous in terms of total members, as well as the more extended in RA. A comparison with the latest model of the disruption of the Sagittarius dwarf, indicates that none of the above groups is related to it. Rather than being the result of a single accretion event, the excess of stars observed in Virgo appears to be composed of several halo substructures along the same line of sight. © ESO, 2014.

Ortiz-Leon G.N.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Loinard L.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Loinard L.,Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy | Mioduszewski A.J.,U.S. National Radio Astronomy Observatory | And 13 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2015

We present deep (∼17 μJy) radio continuum observations of the Serpens molecular cloud, the Serpens south cluster, and the W40 region obtained using the Very Large Array in its A configuration. We detect a total of 146 sources, 29 of which are young stellar objects (YSOs), 2 of which are BV stars, and 5 more of which are associated with phenomena related to YSOs. Based on their radio variability and spectral index, we propose that about 16 of the remaining 110 unclassified sources are also YSOs. For approximately 65% of the known YSOs detected here as radio sources, the emission is most likely non-thermal and related to stellar coronal activity. As also recently observed in Ophiuchus, our sample of YSOs with X-ray counterparts lies below the fiducial Güdel & Benz relation. Finally, we analyze the proper motions of nine sources in the W40 region. This allows us to better constrain the membership of the radio sources in the region. © 2015. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

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