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Santena, Italy

Roato I.,CeRMS | Ferracini R.,A.O. Citta della Salute E della Science di Turin
Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism | Year: 2013

Bone metastases are a dismal consequence of cancer, causing severe morbidity and reducing the quality of life of patients. Solid tumours such as breast, prostate, lung and kidney cancer showed a marked osteotropism dependent on the special microenvironment provided by bone. Different cellular types are involved in the formation of bone metastases, indeed bone, immune system and tumour cells interact leading to bone lesions. During the bone resorption process, there is an intense cross-talk between immune system cells and osteoclasts (OCs). In particular, T cells release factors and cytokines, which rule osteoclastogenesis, and on the other hand, OCs produce factors that act on T cells, which are mediators of the tumour growth in bone. This review will summarize the main mechanisms of action in cancer-induced bone disease with particular regard to the cross-talk among cells of bone, tumour and immune system, focusing on factors and cytokines released by osteoclast, osteoblast, tumour cells and T cells. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

Roato I.,CeRMS
Clinical and Developmental Immunology | Year: 2013

Bone metastases are a dismal consequence for different types of solid tumors, such as breast, prostate, lung, and kidney cancer. The mechanisms regulating the interactions among bone, immune system, and tumor cells have been deeply investigated, and many studies are ongoing to define the specific role of the different cells in the bone metastatic process. The affinity of some tumors to growth in bone results from the special microenvironment provided by bone. Moreover, immune system and bone have a bidirectional relationship: bone cells express surface molecules ruling the expansion of hemopoietic stem cells from which all cells of the mammalian immune system derive, and various immunoregulatory cytokines influence the fate of bone cells. The last findings allow to extend the concept of vicious cycle and add T cells as mediators of the tumor growth in bone. © 2013 Ilaria Roato. Source

Strefford J.C.,University of Southampton | Sutton L.-A.,Uppsala University | Baliakas P.,Uppsala University | Baliakas P.,HCT Unit | And 24 more authors.
Leukemia | Year: 2013

Recent studies have revealed recurrent mutations of the NOTCH1, SF3B1 and BIRC3 genes in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), especially among aggressive, chemorefractory cases. Nevertheless, it is currently unknown whether their presence may differ in subsets of patients carrying stereotyped B-cell receptors and also exhibiting distinct prognoses. Here, we analyzed the mutation status of NOTCH1, SF3B1 and BIRC3 in three subsets with particularly poor prognosis, that is, subset #1, #2 and #8, aiming to explore links between genetic aberrations and immune signaling. A remarkably higher frequency of SF3B1 mutations was revealed in subset #2 (44%) versus subset #1 and #8 (4.6% and 0%, respectively; P<0.001). In contrast, the frequency of NOTCH1 mutations in subset #2 was only 8%, lower than the frequency observed in either subset #1 or #8 (19% and 14%, respectively; P=0.04 for subset #1 versus #2). No associations were found for BIRC3 mutations that overall were rare. The apparent non-random association of certain mutations with stereotyped CLL subsets alludes to subset-biased acquisition of genomic aberrations, perhaps consistent with particular antigen/antibody interactions. These novel findings assist in unraveling specific mechanisms underlying clinical aggressiveness in poor-prognostic stereotyped subsets, with far-reaching implications for understanding their clonal evolution and implementing biologically oriented therapy. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Source

D'amico L.,CeRMS | Satolli M.A.,San Giovanni Battista Hospital | Mecca C.,San Giovanni Battista Hospital | Castiglione A.,Unit of Cancer Epidemiology | And 6 more authors.
Oncology Reports | Year: 2013

Gastric cancer is one of the most common and lethal malignancies worldwide. Bone metastases in gastric cancer are less common than in other solid tumors, but when they occur the prognosis is generally poor. Increased osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast activity are common features in bone metastases caused by different osteotropic cancer. We investigated osteoclastogenesis and its mechanisms in gastric cancer by enrolling 31 newly diagnosed gastric cancer patients and 45 healthy controls. We studied in vitro osteoclastogenesis in the peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures of patients and controls, showing spontaneous osteoclastogenesis for half of the patients. This osteoclastogenesis was RANKL- and TNF-a-independent. We analyzed primary tumor and bone metastatic tissues of gastric cancer for the expression of genes involved in osteoclastogenesis. The expression of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), osteoprotegerin (OPG), IL-7 and dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) was higher in primary tumors than in bone metastases. RANKL was not detectable in primary tumor or in bone metastatic tissue. The serum RANKL level was significantly higher in healthy controls than in patients, and it was not related to osteoclastogenesis, thereby suggesting that RANKL is not involved in the bone metastatic mechanisms in gastric cancer. We hypothesized a role of RANKL in angiogenesis, thus we compared the serum levels of RANKL to those of VEGF, since VEGF is directly related to angiogenesis. Different from RANKL, the VEGF serum levels were higher in gastric patients than in controls, suggesting a block of the angiogenesis inhibition due to RANKL. RANKL and VEGF serum levels were not predictive of overall survival in our cohort of gastric patients. © 2013 Spandidos Publications Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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