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Naperville, IL, United States

Yuen W.,Urbana University | Du K.,University of Calgary | Koloutsou-Vakakis S.,Urbana University | Rood M.J.,Urbana University | And 4 more authors.
Aerosol and Air Quality Research | Year: 2015

A hybrid-optical remote sensing (hybrid-ORS) method was developed to quantify mass emission factors (EFs) for fugitive particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters ≤ 10 μm (PM10) and ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5). In-situ range-resolved extinction coefficient and concurrent point measurements of PM10 and PM2.5 mass concentrations are used to quantify twodimensional (2-D) PM10 and PM2.5 mass concentration profiles. Integration of each 2-D mass concentration profile with wind data, event duration, and source type provides the corresponding fugitive PM10 and PM2.5 EFs. This method was used to quantify EFs for fugitive PM10 and PM2.5 emitted from tracked and wheeled vehicles travelling on unpaved roads in a desert region. The EFs for tracked vehicles ranged from 206 g/km to 1,738 g/km for PM10 and from 78 g/km to 684 g/km for PM2.5, depending on vehicle speed and vehicle type. The EFs for the wheeled vehicle ranged from 223 g/km to 4,339 g/km for PM10 and from 44 g/km to 1,627 g/km for PM2.5. Field implementation of the hybrid-ORS method demonstrates that the method can rapidly capture multiple profiles of the PM plumes and is well suited for improved quantification of fugitive PM EFs from vehicles traveling on unpaved roads. © Taiwan Association for Aerosol Research. Source

Singer S.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale | Wang G.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale | Howard H.,ERDC CERL | Anderson A.,ERDC CERL
Environmental Management | Year: 2012

Environment functions in various aspects including soil and water conservation, biodiversity and habitats, and landscape aesthetics. Comprehensive assessment of environmental condition is thus a great challenge. The issues include how to assess individual environmental components such as landscape aesthetics and integrate them into an indicator that can comprehensively quantify environmental condition. In this study, a geographic information systems based spatial multi-criteria decision analysis was used to integrate environmental variables and create the indicator. This approach was applied to Fort Riley Military installation in which land condition and its dynamics due to military training activities were assessed. The indicator was derived by integrating soil erosion, water quality, landscape fragmentation, landscape aesthetics, and noise based on the weights from the experts by assessing and ranking the environmental variables in terms of their importance. The results showed that landscape level indicator well quantified the overall environmental condition and its dynamics, while the indicator at level of patch that is defined as a homogeneous area that is different from its surroundings detailed the spatiotemporal variability of environmental condition. The environmental condition was mostly determined by soil erosion, then landscape fragmentation, water quality, landscape aesthetics, and noise. Overall, environmental condition at both landscape and patch levels greatly varied depending on the degree of ground and canopy disturbance and their spatial patterns due to military training activities and being related to slope. It was also determined the environment itself could be recovered quickly once military training was halt or reduced. Thus, this study provided an effective tool for the army land managers to monitor environmental dynamics and plan military training activities. Its limitation lies at that the obtained values of the indicator vary and are subjective to the experts' knowledge and experience. Thus, further advancing this approach is needed by developing a scientific method to derive the weights of environmental variables. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC (outside the USA) 2012. Source

Johnson S.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale | Wang G.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale | Howard H.,ERDC CERL | Anderson A.B.,ERDC CERL
Journal of Terramechanics | Year: 2011

A great challenge the US military land managers are often faced with is how to optimize road networks in order to maintain roads (including all roads, trails, and paths) for the purpose of military training and reducing negative impacts on environment. In this study, a methodology was developed to identify superfluous roads for being closed in terms of both sustainable military land carrying capacity and environment for Fort Riley. In this method, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), remote sensing, and landscape analysis technologies were combined to derive various spatial data layers of factors that had significant impacts on both military training and environment. The factors included maintenance cost of roads, road access area, military training intensity, soil erosion, water quality, landscape fragmentation, and noise production. The factors were quantified and normalized. A spatial multicriteria decision was then developed to obtain the weights of the factors, combine the data layers, and derive a priority map of all the roads for being closed. This map summarized the negative and positive impacts of the factors on environment and military land carrying capacity and can provide the US military land managers with useful guidelines and tools for determining superfluous roads in terms of both sustainable military training and environment. It is expected this effort can provide a method to quickly ascertain which roads are most cost-effective for being closed without hindering the mission and at the same time with benefits for environmental protection and thus provide the land managers with a comprehensive analysis and assessment of alternatives at their disposal. © 2011 ISTVS. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Ramirez D.,Texas A&M University-Kingsville | Emamipour H.,Urbana University | Vidal E.X.,Empresa Municipal de Telecomunicaciones | Rood M.J.,Urbana University | Hay K.J.,ERDC CERL
Journal of Environmental Engineering | Year: 2011

The amount of organic vapors that are emitted to the atmosphere can be reduced with the use of electrothermal-swing adsorption (ESA) with activated carbon fiber cloth (ACFC). This paper describes a pilot-scale ESA system that was scaled up based on two ESA bench-scale systems. Each ESA system consists of two vessels with four ACFC cartridges. The bench-scale and pilot-scale systems were tested with adsorption and desorption cycles using gas streams containing 73-10,000ppmv and from 170-940ppmv methyl ethyl ketone, respectively. Total flow rate ranged from 5 sL/min to 140 sL/min for the bench unit and 1,700 sL/min for the pilot unit. Scale-up procedure of an ESA system from the bench-scale to the pilot-scale is presented for the first time. Scale-up was based on throughput ratio, length of unused bed, adsorption capacity, pressure drop, superficial gas velocity in the ACFC, organic vapor removal efficiency, duration of the adsorption cycle, duration of the regeneration cycle, liquid recovery efficiency, electrical power/energy applied to the ACFC cartridges, and temperature of the ACFC cartridges. © 2011 American Society of Civil Engineers. Source

Wang G.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale | Murphy D.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale | Oller A.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale | Howard H.R.,ERDC CERL | And 4 more authors.
Environmental Management | Year: 2014

The effects of military training activities on the land condition of Army installations vary spatially and temporally. Training activities observably degrade land condition while also increasing biodiversity and stabilizing ecosystems. Moreover, other anthropogenic activities regularly occur on military lands such as prescribed burns and agricultural haying-adding to the dynamics of land condition. Thus, spatially and temporally assessing the impacts of military training, prescribed burning, agricultural haying, and their interactions is critical to the management of military lands. In this study, the spatial distributions and patterns of military training-induced disturbance frequency were derived using plot observation and point observation-based method, at Fort Riley, Kansas from 1989 to 2001. Moreover, spatial and variance analysis of cumulative impacts due to military training, burning, haying, and their interactions on the land condition of Fort Riley were conducted. The results showed that: (1) low disturbance intensity dominated the majority of the study area with exception of concentrated training within centralized areas; (2) high and low values of disturbance frequency were spatially clustered and had spatial patterns that differed significantly from a random distribution; and (3) interactions between prescribed burning and agricultural haying were not significant in terms of either soil erosion or disturbance intensity although their means and variances differed significantly between the burned and non-burned areas and between the hayed and non-hayed areas. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media. Source

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