Heckman K.L.,St. Lawrence University |
Decoteau W.,St. Lawrence University |
Estevez A.,St. Lawrence University |
Reed K.J.,Cerion Enterprises LLC |
And 13 more authors.
ACS Nano | Year: 2013
Cerium oxide nanoparticles are potent antioxidants, based on their ability to either donate or receive electrons as they alternate between the +3 and +4 valence states. The dual oxidation state of ceria has made it an ideal catalyst in industrial applications, and more recently, nanoceria's efficacy in neutralizing biologically generated free radicals has been explored in biological applications. Here, we report the in vivo characteristics of custom-synthesized cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeNPs) in an animal model of immunological and free-radical mediated oxidative injury leading to neurodegenerative disease. The CeNPs are 2.9 nm in diameter, monodispersed and have a -23.5 mV zeta potential when stabilized with citrate/EDTA. This stabilizer coating resists being 'washed' off in physiological salt solutions, and the CeNPs remain monodispersed for long durations in high ionic strength saline. The plasma half-life of the CeNPs is ∼4.0 h, far longer than previously described, stabilized ceria nanoparticles. When administered intravenously to mice, the CeNPs were well tolerated and taken up by the liver and spleen much less than previous nanoceria formulations. The CeNPs were also able to penetrate the brain, reduce reactive oxygen species levels, and alleviate clinical symptoms and motor deficits in mice with a murine model of multiple sclerosis. Thus, CeNPs may be useful in mitigating tissue damage arising from free radical accumulation in biological systems. © 2013 American Chemical Society.
Grulke E.,University of Kentucky |
Reed K.,Cerion Enterprises LLC |
Beck M.,University of Kentucky |
Huang X.,University of Kentucky |
And 2 more authors.
Environmental Science: Nano | Year: 2014
Nanoceria redox properties are affected by particle size, particle shape, surface chemistry, and other factors, such as additives that coat the surface, local pH, and ligands that can participate in redox reactions. Each CeO2 crystal facet has a different chemistry, surface energy, and surface reactivity. Unlike nanoceria's industrial catalytic applications, biological and environment exposures are characterized by high water activity values and relatively high oxygen activity values. Electrochemical data show that oxygen levels, pH, and redox species affect its phase equilibria for solution and dissolution. However, not much is known about how the many and varied redox ligands in environmental and biological systems might affect nanoceria's redox behaviour, the effects of coated surfaces on redox rates and mechanisms, and whether the ceria solid phase undergoes dissolution at physiologically relevant pH and oxygen levels. Research that could answer these questions would improve our understanding of the links between nanoceria's redox performance and its morphology and environmental conditions in the local milieu. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.
Cormack A.N.,Alfred University |
Lamphier S.,Alfred University |
Wang B.,Alfred University |
Gubb T.,Alfred University |
Reed K.,Cerion Enterprises Inc
Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences | Year: 2015
Atomistic computer simulations, using classical potential models, have been used to model ceria nanoparticles (NPs) with diameters of approximately 1 and 2 nm. Lattice expansion is observed in the stoichiometric 1nm NP, consistent with experiment, indicating that reduction is not the primary driver for such expansion. Furthermore, on reduction, the 1 nm NP is found to distort significantly, offering a possible explanation for its reduced oxygen storage capacity compared to the 2 nm NP. Point defect calculations on the 2 nm NP indicate that while doping with La is energetically favourable, Fe incorporation is not. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Cerion Enterprises Llc | Date: 2013-08-02
A process for forming alkaline earth metal cerate nanoparticles comprises combining a stable cerium oxide aqueous colloidal dispersion with soluble alkaline earth metal salts while maintaining colloidal stability. The resulting alkaline earth metal salts may be calcined to form alkaline earth metal cerate particles having a perovskite structure.
Cerion Enterprises Llc | Date: 2014-04-25
A process for making cerium-containing nanoparticles with biocompatible stabilizers is described, wherein an aqueous reaction mixture comprising cerous ion, citric acid, a stabilizer (chelator) selected from the group consisting of nitrilotriacetic acid, ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, and an oxidant, is provided, followed by a heating step to effectively form the nanoparticles. These biocompatible nanoparticles can be used to treat oxidative stress related diseases and events, such as ischemic stroke.
Cerion Enterprises LLC | Date: 2013-04-17
A process for making nanoparticles of biocompatible materials is described, wherein an aqueous reaction mixture comprising cerous ion, an -amino acid, an oxidant and water is provided along with temperature conditions to effectively form nanoparticles. These biocompatible nanoparticles may be further conjugated to biologically active agents, such as plasmid DNA, siRNA or proteins, such that a cell transfection agent is formed.
Cerion Enterprises LLC | Date: 2013-03-15
A process for making nanoparticles of biocompatible materials is described, wherein an aqueous reaction mixture comprising cerous ion, citric acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in a predetermined ratio, an oxidant, and water is provided along with temperature conditions to directly form, without isolation, a stable dispersion of cerium oxide nanoparticles. These biocompatible cerium oxide nanoparticles may be used to prevent and/or treat oxidative stress related diseases, such as stroke, relapse/remitting multiple sclerosis, chronic-progressive multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and ischemic reperfusion injury.
Cerion Enterprises LLC | Date: 2013-03-15
A process for making nanoparticles of biocompatible materials is described, wherein an aqueous reaction mixture comprising cerous ion, citric acid, an oxidant, and water, is adjusted to a predetermined range of pH, held at temperature conditions to directly form, without isolation, a stable dispersion of cerium oxide nanoparticles. Dispersions of these biocompatible cerium oxide nanoparticles exhibit self-life well in excess of one year, and may be used to prevent and/or treat disease or injury, such as oxidative stress related diseases and events.
Cerion Enterprises LLC | Date: 2013-05-24
Aqueous and substantially crystalline iron oxide nanoparticle dispersions and processes for making them are disclosed. The nanoparticle size and size distribution width are advantageous for use in a fuel additive for catalytic reduction of soot combustion in diesel particulate filters. Nanoparticles of the aqueous colloid are transferred to a substantially non-polar liquid comprising a carboxylic acid and one or more low-polarity solvents. The transfer is achieved by mixing the aqueous and substantially non-polar materials, forming an emulsion, followed by a phase separation into a substantially metal-free remnant polar phase and a substantially non-polar organic colloid phase. A method for rapid and substantially complete transfer of non-agglomerated nanoparticles to the low polarity phase in the presence of an organic amine, and a rapid phase separation of the substantially non-polar colloid from a remnant aqueous phase, are provided.
Cerion Enterprises LLC | Date: 2013-03-19
A process for the production of Li_(2)MSiO_(4 )where M is selected from the group Fe, Mn, Co, and Ni, is disclosed. The process uses an atmospheric-pressure solvothermal synthesis and a calcining step wherein the solvent is selected to be stable from decomposition over the solvothermal process conditions. The solvothermal solvent is recoverable and reusable. The process also relies on an excess of lithium in the starting materials mix to promote phase-purity of the Li_(2)MSiO_(4 )crystalline phase. The Li_(2)MSiO_(4 )material is used as a cathode material in a lithium ion battery cell.