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Paramasivam S.,Cerebrovascular Center
Neurology India | Year: 2015

Stroke is the leading cause of disability and most of the cases are those of ischemic stroke. Management strategies especially for large vessel occlusive stroke have undergone a significant change in the recent years that include widespread use of thrombolytic medications followed by endovascular clot removal. For successful treatment by endovascular thrombectomy, the important factors are patient selection based on clinical criterion including age, time of onset, premorbid clinical condition, co-morbidities, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale, and imaging criterion including computed tomography (CT) head, CT angiogram and CT perfusion. Patients presenting within 4.5 hours of onset are considered for intravenous (IV) recombinant tissue plasminogen activator treatment. Mechanical clot retrieval devices have evolved over the past decade. The Mechanical Embolus Removal in Cerebral Ischemia device was approved first followed by the penumbra revascularization system. They have proven in various studies to improve recanalization with acceptable rates of symptomatic intra-cerebral hemorrhage. Introduction of stent retrievers has led to a new era in the interventional management of acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Recent trials namely MRCLEAN, ESCAPE, SWIFT PRIMEs, and EXTEND-IA have used the stent retriever predominantly and have shown unequivocal benefit in the outcome at 90 days for AIS patients with large vessel occlusion. More recently, a new catheter namely 5 MAX ACE was introduced along with improvement in the suction device. This has led to a direct aspiration first pass technique resulting in faster recanalization. Advancements in the endovascular management of AIS with large vessel occlusion have resulted in a paradigm shift in the way this disease is managed. Improvements in patient selection using clinical and imaging criterion along with technical and technological advancements in mechanical thrombectomy have made possible a significantly improved outcome in stroke patients. Source


Tsivgoulis G.,University of Tennessee Health Science Center | Tsivgoulis G.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | Zand R.,University of Tennessee Health Science Center | Katsanos A.H.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | And 9 more authors.
Stroke | Year: 2015

Background and Purpose - Shortening door-to-needle time may lead to inadvertent intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) administration in stroke mimics (SMs). We sought to determine the safety of IVT in SMs using prospective, single-center data and by conducting a comprehensive meta-analysis of reported case-series. Methods - We prospectively analyzed consecutive IVT-treated patients during a 5-year period at a tertiary care stroke center. A systematic review and meta-analysis of case-series reporting safety of IVT in SMs and confirmed acute ischemic stroke were conducted. Symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage was defined as imaging evidence of ICH with an National Institutes of Health Stroke scale increase of ≥4 points. Favorable functional outcome at hospital discharge was defined as a modified Rankin Scale score of 0 to 1. Results - Of 516 consecutive IVT patients at our tertiary care center (50% men; mean age, 60±14 years; median National Institutes of Health Stroke scale, 11; range, 3-22), SMs comprised 75 cases. Symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage occurred in 1 patient, whereas we documented no cases of orolingual edema or major extracranial hemorrhagic complications. In meta-analysis of 9 studies (8942 IVT-treated patients), the pooled rates of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage and orolingual edema among 392 patients with SM treated with IVT were 0.5% (95% confidence interval, 0%-2%) and 0.3% (95% confidence interval, 0%-2%), respectively. Patients with SM were found to have a significantly lower risk for symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage compared with patients with acute ischemic stroke (risk ratio=0.33; 95% confidence interval, 0.14-0.77; P=0.010), with no evidence of heterogeneity or publication bias. Favorable functional outcome was almost 3-fold higher in patients with SM in comparison with patients with acute ischemic stroke (risk ratio=2.78; 95% confidence interval, 2.07-3.73; P<0.00001). Conclusions - Our prospective, single-center experience coupled with the findings of the comprehensive meta-analysis underscores the safety of IVT in SM. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc. Source


McTaggart R.A.,Cleveland Clinic | McTaggart R.A.,Cerebrovascular Center | Jovin T.G.,University of Pittsburgh | Lansberg M.G.,Stanford University | And 6 more authors.
Stroke | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE - : In this study, we compare the performance of pretreatment Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomographic scoring (ASPECTS) using noncontrast CT (NCCT) and MRI in a large endovascular therapy cohort. METHODS - : Prospectively enrolled patients underwent baseline NCCT and MRI and started endovascular therapy within 12 hours of stroke onset. Inclusion criteria for this analysis were evaluable pretreatment NCCT, diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI), and 90-day modified Rankin Scale scores. Two expert readers graded ischemic change on NCCT and DWI using the ASPECTS. ASPECTS scores were analyzed with the full scale or were trichotomized (0-4 versus 5-7 versus 8-10) or dichotomized (0-7 versus 8-10). Good functional outcome was defined as a 90-day modified Rankin Scale score of 0 to 2. RESULTS - : Seventy-four patients fulfilled our study criteria. The full-scale inter-rater agreement for CT-ASPECTS and DWI-ASPECTS was 0.579 and 0.867, respectively. DWI-ASPECTS correlated with functional outcome (P=0.004), whereas CT-ASPECTS did not (P=0.534). Both DWI-ASPECTS and CT-ASPECTS correlated with DWI volume. The receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that DWI-ASPECTS outperformed both CT-ASPECTS and the time interval between symptom onset and start of the procedure for predicting good functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale score, ≤2) and DWI volume ≥70 mL. CONCLUSION - : Inter-rater agreement for DWI-ASPECTS was superior to that for CT-ASPECTS. DWI-ASPECTS outperformed NCCT ASPECTS for predicting functional outcome at 90 days. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc. Source


Mori M.,Japan National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute | Mori M.,Cerebrovascular Center | Naganuma M.,Japan National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute | Okada Y.,Cerebrovascular Center | And 10 more authors.
Cerebrovascular Diseases | Year: 2012

Background: The initial 24 h after thrombolysis are critical for patients' conditions, and continuous neurological assessment and blood pressure measurement are required during this time. The goal of this study was to identify the clinical factors associated with early neurological deterioration (END) within 24 h of stroke patients receiving intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) therapy and to clarify the effect of END on 3-month outcomes. Methods: A retrospective, multicenter, observational study was conducted in 10 stroke centers in Japan. A total of 566 consecutive stroke patients [211 women, 72 ± 12 years old, the median initial NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score of 13] treated with intravenous rt-PA (0.6 mg/kg alteplase) was studied. END was defined as a 4-point or greater increase in the NIHSS score at 24 h from the NIHSS score just before thrombolysis. Results: END was present in 56 patients (9.9%, 18 women, 72 ± 10 years old) and was independently associated with higher blood glucose [odds ratio (OR) 1.17, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.07-1.28 per 1 mmol/l increase, p < 0.001], lower initial NIHSS score (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.87-0.97 per 1-point increase, p = 0.002), and internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion (OR 5.36, 95% CI 2.60-11.09, p < 0.001) on multivariate analysis. Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage within the initial 36 h from thrombolysis was more common in patients with END than in the other patients (per NINDS/Cochrane protocol, OR 10.75, 95% CI 4.33-26.85, p < 0.001, and per SITS-MOST protocol, OR 12.90, 95% CI 2.76-67.41, p = 0.002). At 3 months, no patients with END had a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of 0-1. END was independently associated with death and dependency (mRS 3-6, OR 20.44, 95% CI 6.96-76.93, p < 0.001), as well as death (OR 19.43, 95% CI 7.75-51.44, p < 0.001), at 3 months. Conclusions: Hyperglycemia, lower baseline NIHSS score, and ICA occlusion were independently associated with END after rt-PA therapy. END was independently associated with poor 3-month stroke outcome after rt-PA therapy. © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source


Hui F.K.,Cleveland Clinic | Yim J.,NASA | Spiotta A.M.,Cleveland Clinic | Hussain M.S.,Cerebrovascular Center | Toth G.,Cerebrovascular Center
Journal of NeuroInterventional Surgery | Year: 2012

Objective and importance: In the setting of stroke intervention, there is typically an occlusion that limits angiographic visualization of patent vasculature distal to the embolus. Certain mechanical thrombectomy paradigms include angiography of the vasculature distal to the point of occlusion in preparation for thrombectomy, typically using a microcatheter. Injections using an intermediate catheter allows for higher volume of injection at a faster rate, resulting in radically different pressure gradients. Clinical presentations: Two patients presenting with acute ischemic stroke were treated via mechanical thrombectomy using the Penumbra 054 system. The first was a tandem occlusion with a high grade narrowing and occlusion of the internal carotid artery (ICA) origin and an ICA terminus thrombus. The second was a long segment, high volume thrombus extending from the cavernous segment to the ICA terminus. Intervention: Conventional access techniques were utilized to position the Penumbra 054 catheter in the ICA in both cases. Intraprocedurally, angiography through the 054 catheter within the closed segment resulted in contrast extravasation adjacent to the tentorium, originating from the communicating segment of the ICA, both of which cleared within 48 h. Due to the extravasation, the interventions were both terminated, and the infarcts went on to complete. Conclusion: During an acute stroke, flow within large vessels is abnormal, and rapid changes in volume may result in drastic changes in pressure which may lead to extravasation. The authors recommend never performing a contrast injection through a large lumen catheter when flow may be impeded proximally and distally. Closed segment injections of large volumes at a high rate are probably at high risk for vessel injury. Source

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