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Ghosh A.,Apollo Gleneagles Hospitals | Dutt A.,Apollo Gleneagles Hospitals | Bhargava P.,Apollo Gleneagles Hospitals | Snowden J.,Cerebral Function Unit
Journal of Neurology | Year: 2013

Environmental dependency (ED) behaviours, such as imitation behaviour (IB) and incidental utilization behaviour (UB), are considered pathognomonic of a frontal lesion and can play a unique role in diagnosing behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). However, with only few focused observations of ED behaviour reported in earlier studies, their roles in the diagnosis of bvFTD have so far remained supportive. In this observational study, conducted in the cognitive clinic of a tertiary-care hospital, we explored the hypotheses that a focused and systematic search could uncover more ED behaviours in patients with bvFTD, and that the presence of ED behaviours such as incidental UB and IB should allow us to cleanly differentiate bvFTD from AD. Forty-one bvFTD patients and 75 probable AD patients, all diagnosed using accepted criteria, were seen by a neurologist and a neuropsychologist. Information regarding ED behaviour was obtained from the caregiver's history, observations for spontaneous behaviour and induction of the behaviour in the clinic. All ED behaviours were significantly more frequent in bvFTD compared with AD. UB (78 %; 66 % incidental) and IB (59 %) occurred exclusively in bvFTD. Multi-pronged and focused clinical assessment contributed to the high frequency of ED behaviours. Nearly two-thirds of bvFTD patients, but none with AD, showed three or more ED behaviours. We concluded that ED behaviours are more common in bvFTD than is currently recognized. UB, IB or three ED behaviours, if present, could clearly differentiate bvFTD from AD. A focused search should consistently uncover ED behaviours in bvFTD patients. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Shi J.,Beijing University of Chinese Medicine | Wei M.,Beijing University of Chinese Medicine | Tian J.,Beijing University of Chinese Medicine | Snowden J.,Cerebral Function Unit | And 10 more authors.
BMC Psychiatry | Year: 2014

Background: Decline in verbal episodic memory is a core feature of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). The delayed story recall (DSR) test from the Adult Memory and Information Processing Battery (AMIPB) discriminates MCI from normal aging and predicts its conversion to Alzheimer's dementia. However, there is no study that validates the Chinese version of the DSR and reports cut-off scores in the Chinese population.Methods: A total of 631 subjects were screened in the memory clinics of Dongzhimen Hospital, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, China. 249 were considered to have normal cognition (NC), 134 met diagnostic criteria for MCI according to the MCI Working Group of the European Consortium on Alzheimer's Disease, and 97 met criteria for probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) according to the NINCDS/ADRDA criteria, 14 exhibited vascular dementia (VaD), and 50 had a diagnosis of another type of dementia. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were used to calculate the story recall cutoff score for detecting MCI and AD. Normative data in the NC group were obtained as a function of age and education.Results: In this Chinese sample, the normative mean DSR score was 28.10 ± 8.54 in the 50-64 year-old group, 26.22 ± 8.38 in the 65-74 year-old group, and 24.42 ± 8.38 in the 75-85 year-old group. DSR performance was influenced by age and education. The DSR test had high sensitivity (0.899) and specificity (0.799) in the detection of MCI from NC using a cut-off score of 15.5. When the cutoff score was 10.5, the DSR test obtained optimal sensitivity (0.980) and specificity (0.938) in the discrimination of AD from NC. Cutoff scores and diagnostic values were calculated stratified by age and education.Conclusions: The Chinese version of the DSR can be used as a screening tool to detect MCI and AD with high sensitivity and specificity, and it could be used to identify people at high risk of cognitive impairment. © 2014 Shi et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Vardy E.R.L.C.,University of Manchester | Vardy E.R.L.C.,Cerebral Function Unit | Kellett K.A.B.,University of Leeds | Cocklin S.L.,University of Leeds | Hooper N.M.,University of Leeds
Neurodegenerative Diseases | Year: 2012

Background: Tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) has been shown to promote the neurotoxicity of extracellular tau which contributes to the spread of pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Objective: To investigate changes in TNAP activity in the hippocampus in both sporadic and familial AD, and to examine whether changes in neuronal TNAP are reflected systemically by looking at changes in plasma TNAP activity in AD. Methods: We measured the activity of TNAP in the hippocampus in sporadic AD, familial AD and appropriate age-matched controls, and in an ageing series (age: 25-88 years) of brains. In addition, we measured TNAP activity in plasma from 110 AD and 110 non-demented control participants. Results: TNAP activity was significantly increased in the hippocampus in sporadic (by 56%; p = 0.038) and familial AD (by 121%; p = 0.042) compared with the age-matched controls. However, there was no correlation of TNAP activity with age. Furthermore, plasma TNAP activity was increased in AD (by 13%; p = 0.018) and inversely correlated with cognitive function (r s = -0.211; p = 0.027). Conclusion: Together, these data indicate that TNAP is increased in both sporadic and familial AD but not in the aged brain, indicating that the increase is likely a consequence of AD-associated changes in the brain. The neuronal change in TNAP is reflected in an increase in plasma TNAP in AD and is inversely correlated with cognitive function. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.


Davidson Y.S.,University of Manchester | Raby S.,Lancaster University | Foulds P.G.,Lancaster University | Robinson A.,University of Manchester | And 17 more authors.
Acta Neuropathologica | Year: 2011

TDP-43 immunoreactive (TDP-43-ir) pathological changes were investigated in the temporal cortex and hippocampus of 11 patients with autosomal dominant familial forms of Alzheimer's disease (FAD), 169 patients with sporadic AD [85 with early onset disease (EOAD) (i.e before 65 years of age), and 84 with late onset after this age (LOAD)], 50 individuals with Down's Syndrome (DS) and 5 patients with primary hippocampal sclerosis (HS). TDP-43-ir pathological changes were present, overall, in 34/180 of AD cases. They were present in 1/11 (9%) FAD, and 9/85 (10%) EOAD patients but were significantly more common (p = 0.003) in LOAD where 24/84 (29%) patients showed such changes. There were no demographic differences, other than onset age, between AD patients with or without TDP-43-ir pathological changes. Double immunolabelling indicated that these TDP-43-ir inclusions were frequently ubiquitinated, but were only rarely AT8 (tau) immunoreactive. Only 3 elderly DS individuals and 4/5 cases of primary HS showed similar changes. Overall, 21.7% of AD cases and 6% DS cases showed hippocampal sclerosis (HS). However, only 9% FAD cases and 16% EOAD cases showed HS, but 29% LOAD cases showed HS. The proportion of EOAD cases with both TDP-43 pathology and HS tended to be greater than those in LOAD, where nearly half of all the cases with TDP-43 pathology did not show HS. The presence of TDP-43-ir changes in AD and DS may therefore be a secondary phenomenon, relating more to ageing than to AD itself. Nevertheless, a challenge to such an interpretation comes from the finding in AD of a strong relationship between TDP-43 pathology and cognitive phenotype. Patients with TDP-43 pathology were significantly more likely to present with an amnestic syndrome than those without (p < 0.0001), in keeping with pathological changes in medial temporal lobe structures. HS was also associated more commonly with an amnestic presentation (p < 0.005), but this association disappeared when TDP-43-positive cases were excluded from the analysis. TDP-43 may, after all, be integral to the pathology of AD, and to some extent determine the clinical phenotype present. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Vardy E.,Newcastle Upon Tyne Hospitals | Vardy E.,Northumbria University | Holt R.,Pinderfields Hospital | Gerhard A.,University of Manchester | And 7 more authors.
International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry | Year: 2014

Background Delirium is common and is associated with an increased risk of dementia. However, it is not clear whether delirium confers increased risk of any particular type of dementia. We performed a retrospective study of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) to ascertain whether a suspected episode of preceding delirium was more common prior to diagnosis in either type of dementia. Methods The study was carried out in a tertiary referral unit for the diagnosis of dementia. Clinic letters from the first presentation to the unit of 85 cases with DLB and 95 cases of AD were reviewed for documentation of any previous episodes of suspected delirium. Results In this study, 25% of DLB cases had at least one reported episode of suspected delirium as compared to 7% of AD cases (p = 0.001). For the DLB cases who had a prior suspected delirium, 23% had more than one episode compared with 14% of the AD group. The median time between most recent suspected episode of delirium and diagnosis of dementia in both groups was less than a year Conclusions A greater proportion of those presenting and diagnosed with DLB had a documentation of a suspected delirium than those diagnosed with AD. Delirium may lead to a higher risk of DLB as opposed to other forms of dementia, or delirium may, at least in some cases, represent the early stages of DLB. These data suggest that a diagnosis of DLB should be specifically considered in those presenting with a delirium. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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