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Gasztonyi M.N.,Central Food Research Institute | Farkas R.T.,Central Food Research Institute | Berki M.,Central Food Research Institute | Petroczi I.M.,Cereal Research Non Profit Ltd. | Daood H.G.,Central Food Research Institute
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis | Year: 2011

This study evaluates the concentration of various forms of ferulic acid in wheat and in wheat varieties grown under comparable organic and conventional conditions over two years. The effect of fungicide application in 2009 was also studied. Soluble conjugated and bound forms of ferulic acid were quantified by HPLC-PAD after extraction, the bound form was present predominantly up to 85-90% of total content. In 2008 the bound form of ferulic acid was measured in the range of 248-550 μg/g, the conjugated form was between 11 and 40 μg/g in all the wheat cultivars as a function of (NPK) treatments. Total ferulic acid content measured in 2009 varied in the range of 275-435; 267-341; 296-378 μg/g, with fungicide and 189-394; 231-366; 182-324 μg/g without fungicide in varieties Békés, Csillag and Petur respectively. In 2008 a significantly higher amount of conjugated ferulic acid was measured in all three investigated cultivars as compared to the content found in 2009 for the same cultivars. As all the samples were treated with fungicide, the main factor was the year (climate conditions). The combination of NPK, fertilizers did not affect significantly the ferulic acid concentration, on the other hand the year (climate conditions) influenced significantly the soluble conjugated ferulic acid content in all fungicide treated varieties. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source

Mineral fertilization experiments were carried out for eight years on a hay field planted on a natural grassland (Achilleo-Festucetum pseudovinae) on strongly calcareous meadow soil in the region between the Danube and Tisza rivers, followed by eight years on a grass-clover sward. The shallow (25-30 cm) humus-containing layer was rich in organic matter, potassium, nitrogen and CaCO3, but very poor in phosphorus. The effect of two rates each of N and P fertilizer, alone and in combination, on the species composition, hay yield, crude protein content and yield of the vegetation and on the nutrient-supplying ability of the soil was investigated on 50 m2 plots in a random block design with 5 replications. In the first 8-year cycle the study involved a hay field with 8 species components under rainfed and irrigated conditions, and in the second 8-year cycle a rainfed grass-clover sward with 5 components. In the irrigated experiment, 40-50 mm water was supplied 4-5 times a year. - Phytocoenological analysis. As a consequence of the intensive mineralisation processes induced by the ploughing up of the grassland, a poor, short-lived plant stand arose on the control plots. The application of N fertilizer alone caused a further deterioration of the soil N:P ratio, resulting in a poor grass stand with low productivity. By contrast, P fertilization greatly promoted the spread of legume species, which were absolutely dominant for the first four years. The grasses only became dominant from the 4-5th year, when the legumes receded. In the NP treatments the rate at which the grasses supplanted the legumes depended on the N rate. The grass:legume mass ratio differed greatly from that in plots treated with P alone. From the 4-5th year of the experiment a fundamental successional change could be observed, and competition between the grass species intensified, while dicotyledonous weeds also appeared, all of which led to a considerable reduction in the productivity of the grassland. In the first experimental cycle the dominance of legumes in the hay field was first challenged by orchardgrass and smooth bromegrass under rainfed conditions, while in the irrigated experiment the dominance of meadow fescue was later replaced by French ryegrass. The other grass components played a subordinate role. The grass:legume ratio was influenced decisively by the P and NP treatments, but the weather also played an important part. In the 8 years of the second experimental cycle on a rainfed grass-clover sward, orchardgrass was only able to break the dominance of alfalfa in the 3-4th year, even in the NP treatments. In the last few years of the experiment the dry weather allowed smooth bromegrass to become dominant, resulting in a highly productive meadow, especially in the N200P60 plots. - Yield results. Due to the great P deficiency in the soil, neither the control plots nor those treated with N fertilizer alone were able to produce a satisfactory yield even in the early years of the experiments. P fertilizer, on the other hand, resulted in outstandingly high yields, especially due to the great increase in the mass of legumes. When P was applied alone hay yields of 8-9 t·ha-1 were achieved on the rainfed hay field and 12-13 t·ha-1 with irrigation, averaged over several years, at a high rate of fertilizer efficiency (hay yield surplus of 98-156 kg per kg P2O5). On the rainfed grass-clover sward the application of P alone resulted in even higher hay yields than on the hay field (10-11 t·ha-1), averaged over the first 4 years. These yields consisted of 60-90% legumes (primarily alfalfa). During the first 4 years no significant yield surplus was obtained in the NP treatments compared with P alone. During the second 4 years far lower yields were obtained, especially in plots where only P was applied. The reduction was less in the NP treatments due to the absolute dominance of the grasses. The yield-increasing effect of N fertilizer was thus greater, particularly in the case of higher N rates. - The crude protein content of the hay yield on the hay field amounted to 835-1044 kg·ha-1 on rainfed plots and to 1032-1456 kg·ha-1 with irrigation, compared with 260-280 kg·ha-1 on the control plots. - Improvements in soil fertility. The fertility of the calcareous meadow soil, which developed under anaerobic conditions, increased substantially as the result of ploughing up the natural grassland and the subsequent grassland management. There was a great improvement in the heat, water and air management of the soil, which had outstandingly good N-supplying ability. The great P deficiency was overcome by P fertilization. The root system of the planted hay field, particularly that of the legume components (consisting mostly of alfalfa), had a considerable ameliorative effect on the soil. After 8 years of use as a hayfield, grain yields of 8.2 and 6.6 t·ha-1 were achieved in two years of wheat, followed by 7.1 t·ha-1 for winter barley on the NP-treated plots, on what was originally a pasture yielding a very poor grass yield. The results make it clear that highly fertile pastures, hay fields and grass-clover swards can be established on calcareous meadow soil with a 20-30 cm humus-containing layer, not only ameliorating the natural grassland, but also supplying cattle with an annual supply of cheap, valuable roughage. Table 1. Main parameters of the calcareous meadow soil prior to setting up the experiment. (1) Depth, cm. (2) Upper limit of plasticity according to Arany (KA). (3) CO3 (as a % of CaCO3). (4) AL-soluble. (5) Total. Table 2. Grass:legume:weed mass ratio (%) of the rainfed grass-clover sward in the 2nd experimental cycle. (1) Treatments. a) Mean. (2) Grasses. (3) Year. (4) Mean. (5) Legumes. (6) Weeds. A. In the first 4 years. B. In the second 4 years. b) Not evaluated due to the very low yield and 40-50% plant cover. Table 3. Hay yield of the planted hay field under rainfed and irrigated conditions (averaged over 6 and 4 years, respectively). (1) Treatments. a) LSD5%; b) Mean. (2) Rainfed experiment. (3) Hay yield. (4) Irrigated experiment. (5) Effect of irrigation, t·ha-1. Note: D: Difference compared with the control; th = Nutrient efficiency, i.e. hay yield surplus achieved per kg fertilizer active agent, kg. Table 4. Hay yield of the rainfed grass-clover sward in the 2nd experimental cycle. (1) Mineral fertilizer treatments. a) LSD5%; b) Mean. (2) Hay yield. (3) Nutrient efficiency. A. Averaged over the first 4 years. B. Averaged over the second 4 years. Note: D: Difference compared with the control. Table 5. AL-soluble P and K contents of the 0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm soil layers in the 14th year of the rainfed experiment. (1) Fertilizer treatments. Source

Bartok T.,Fumizol Ltd. | Bartok T.,University of Szeged | Szecsi A.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Juhasz K.,Debrecen University | And 2 more authors.
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2013

Following the earlier detection of six new esterified fumonisin B1 (EFB1) isomers containing three acyl groups in a Fusarium verticillioides-inoculated rice culture, it was assumed that linoleic, palmitic or oleic acid esterifies one of the free OH groups on the fumonisin backbone. On the basis of the results of our recent investigations we now propose that these EFB1 isomers are actually 3-O- and 5-O-acyl derivatives of FB1 (3-O-linoleoyl-FB1, 5-O-linoleoyl-FB1, 3-O-palmitoyl-FB1, 5-O-palmitoyl-FB1, 3-O-oleoyl-FB1 and 5-O-oleoyl-FB1). A F. verticillioides strain was identified that produced not only O-acyl-FB1 isomers, but also low amounts of three N-acyl derivatives (N-linoleoyl-FB1, N-palmitoyl-FB1 and N-oleoyl-FB1), which eluted from the HPLC column after the six O-acyl compounds and in the same sequence as for the O-acyl compounds. The characteristic positive and negative ESI-MS/MS spectra obtained after solid-phase extraction of the culture extract facilitated identification of these N-acyl-FB1 derivatives. The biosynthesis of N-palmitoyl-FB1 by F. verticillioides was verified by spiking the culture extract with synthetic N-palmitoyl-FB1. This is the first report of the separation and mass spectrometric identification of the six O-acyl- and three N-acyl-FB1 derivatives extracted from a F. verticillioides culture. © 2013 Taylor & Francis. Source

Mesterhazy A.,Cereal Research Non Profit Ltd. | Lemmens M.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Reid .L.M.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada
Plant Breeding | Year: 2012

Ear rots caused by different Fusarium spp. are one of the most dangerous food and feed safety challenges in maize production. At present, the majority of the inbreds and hybrids are susceptible. Gibberella and Fusarium ear rots (caused by Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium verticillioides, respectively) are the two main diseases, but more than 10 further Fusarium spp. cause ear rots. Natural infection is initiated by a mixture of the local Fusarium spp., but usually one species predominates. Many maize breeders rely on natural infection to create sufficient levels of disease severity for selection-resistant genotypes; however, there are few locations where the natural infection is sufficiently uniform to make this selection efficient and successful. Thus, an artificial inoculation method normally performed with one fungal species is now used by more breeders. Most published papers on breeding for ear rot resistance are focused on either F. graminearum or F. verticillioides, and reports involving both or more Fusarium spp. are rare. Several reports support the hypothesis that resistance to multiple species especially F. graminearum, F. culmorum and F. verticillioides may be common. Significant differences in genotypic resistance after inoculation exist. Resistance to the two major modes of fungal entry into the ear, via the silk or through kernel wounds, is not correlated in all genotypes. The reason is not clear. When silk channel resistance was assessed, the data from natural and artificial inoculation trials correlated well. Analogous data relating to kernel resistance have not been published. Both native and exotic sources of resistance are important, but surprisingly little information is available. Few papers report on the use of artificial inoculation during inbred development. Most of the publications on inoculation are concerned with testing at later stages when combining ability is tested. Inbreds differ in general and specific combining ability for ear rot resistance. The expression of resistance to disease severity and resistance to toxins is often used as synonyms, but in fact they are not. Higher resistance to visual disease severities mostly results in lower toxin contamination, and the resistance level seems to be the most important factor regulating the toxin content. The mode of inheritance of resistance appears to differ: additive, possibly non-additive effects, digenic (dominant) and polygenic patterns have been identified. Improved phenotyping methods that take into account the influence of stalk rot and the use of several independent isolates are available. The QTLs mostly exhibit small effects and some are validated; however, marker-assisted selection in breeding cannot yet be foreseen. As the severity of natural infections tends to correlate with the artificial inoculation results, the incorporation of artificial inoculation methods in breeding programmes is now the most important task. As genotypic resistance differences between hybrids are high, the registration of hybrids should consider the use of the inoculation tests to choose most resistant hybrids for commercial production. This is the most rapid way to increase feed safety. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Source

Purnhauser L.,Cereal Research Non Profit Ltd. | Bona L.,Cereal Research Non Profit Ltd. | Lang L.,Agricultural Research Institute
Euphytica | Year: 2011

The 1BL. 1RS wheat-rye translocation and a wheat-Triticum timopheevii chromosomal introgression carry the Sr31, Lr26, Yr9 and Pm8 genes and the Sr36/Pm6 gene cluster, respectively. The objective of this study was to determine the distribution and impact of these two translocations in 220 wheat varieties registered in Hungary in the last 35 years until 2005. The 1BL. 1RS translocation was introduced into Hungary via wheat cultivars 'Avrora' and 'Kavkaz', which were registered in 1970. New 1BL. 1RS cultivars developed in Hungary first appeared in 1982. After reaching a maximum frequency of 50.0% among cultivars registered in Hungary in 1994, their presence declined steadily to 13.3% by 2005. The Sr36/Pm6 cultivars first appeared in 1980. Their frequency quickly reached 31.8% (1983-1984), but then dropped to between 9.6 and 18.5% (1990-2005). The two main Hungarian breeding programs showed opposing trends in the exploitation of these two translocations. In Martonvásár, 1BL.1RS played a dominant role, being present from 1993 to 1997 in ca. 95% of the released cultivars, while at the same time the use of Sr36/Pm6 was marginal. Conversely, among the Szeged cultivars, Sr36/Pm6 was present at high frequency (44.7% in 2002) with a low share of 1BL.1RS. In artificial field inoculation tests (1985-2003) both of the stem rust resistance genes provided significant resistance in all the years, though Sr36 proved more effective than Sr31. While Pm8 was not effective, except for the last 2 years, Pm6 exhibited significant resistance against powdery mildew in most of the 18 years tested. These data may help breeders to assess the usefulness of wheat-rye 1BL.1RS chromosome translocations and the Sr36/Pm6 resistance gene clusters in their future wheat improvement programs. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

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