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Fargo, ND, United States

Ohm J.-B.,Cereal Crops Research Unit
Journal of Food Processing and Preservation | Year: 2016

Mahaleb seed has a public use in many areas including bakery industry, especially to soft wheat products to obtain a special odor and texture. In this study, the effect of mahaleb on the cookie quality was investigated in various concentrations. The cookies were evaluated for physical, textural and sensory properties, total polyphenols and antioxidative potential. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that the network was affected. The molecular weight of the proteins changed with mahaleb substitution and detected variation in water extractable to unextractable protein ratio by HPLC. Substitution with mahaleb resulted in a significant increase on the amount of (P<0.05) protein, total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. In consumer acceptance tests, cookies made with 1 and 2% mahaleb were preferred to control and had the highest scores among all the sensory attributes after the sample with 4% mahaleb. Practical Applications: Mahaleb seed flour is observed to give a special odor and texture to especially soft wheat products. The quality of cookie which is a primary soft wheat product consumed a lot is affected by mahaleb addition. It is effective in very low substitution rates such as 1-2%. Mahaleb addition resulted in better sensory scores in these rates. The physical, textural, functional and sensory properties of the product were changed by addition of mahaleb. A significant increase on protein rate and antioxidant activity of cookies also reveals that mahaleb has a high potential to be a functional ingredient for the soft wheat product industry. Though, functional ingredients are not generally preferred by consumers; cookies with mahaleb were preferred to control considering all the sensory attributes in consumer acceptance tests. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

McDonald M.C.,ETH Zurich | Oliver R.P.,Curtin University Australia | Friesen T.L.,Cereal Crops Research Unit | Brunner P.C.,ETH Zurich | McDonald B.A.,ETH Zurich
New Phytologist | Year: 2013

Population genetic and phylogenetic studies have shown that Phaeosphaeria nodorum is a member of a species complex that probably shares its center of origin with wheat (Triticum aestivum and Triticum durum). We examined the evolutionary histories of three known necrotrophic effectors (NEs) produced by P. nodorum and compared them with neutral loci. We screened over 1000 individuals for the presence/absence of each effector and assigned each individual to a multi-effector genotype. Diversity at each NE locus was assessed by sequencing c. 200 individuals for each locus. We found significant differences in effector frequency among populations. We propose that these differences reflect the presence/absence of the corresponding susceptibility gene in wheat cultivars. The population harboring the highest sequence diversity was different for each effector locus and never coincided with populations harboring the highest diversity at neutral loci. Coalescent and phylogenetic analyses showed a discontinuous presence of all three NEs among nine closely related Phaeosphaeria species. Only two of the nine species were found to harbor NEs. We present evidence that the three described NEs of P. nodorum were transmitted to its sister species, Phaeosphaeria avenaria tritici 1, via interspecific hybridization. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust. Source

Duke S.H.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Henson C.A.,Cereal Crops Research Unit | Henson C.A.,University of Wisconsin - Madison
Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists | Year: 2011

This study was conducted to test the following hypotheses: 1) increases in barley wort total sugar concentrations during mashing would be greater than those for malt extract (ME) and more closely reflect increases in wort osmolyte concentrations (OC); and 2) individual wort sugars would correlate better with OC than ME. Malts from 12 barley cultivars were mashed, and wort sugars were quantified at six time points during mashing. Over the initial 55 min of mashing, total sugars for combined cultivars increased 110% compared with 120 and 91% for OC and ME, respectively. At the end of the mashing regime, total sugars for combined cultivars increased to 116% versus 132 and 91-92% for OC and ME, respectively. This indicates starch conversion to sugars was more closely reflected by OC than ME and that after 55 min of mashing sugars and OC continued to increase due to degradation of starch and other malt components to lower molecular weight compounds. In contrast, ME remained relatively constant, supporting the first hypothesis. LSD analysis of data from combined cultivars throughout mashing revealed that both OC and total sugars increased significantly from 55 to 70°C, whereas ME did not, supporting the first hypothesis. Over all time points for combined cultivars, OC correlated better than ME with total sugar concentrations, supporting the second hypothesis. In correlations of individual sugar concentrations with ME and OC for combined and individual cultivars, OC correlated better than ME with all sugars and maltodextrins for combined cultivars and most individual cultivars, supporting the second hypothesis. © 2011 American Society of Brewing Chemists, Inc. Source

Duke S.H.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Vinje M.A.,Cereal Crops Research Unit | Henson C.A.,University of Wisconsin - Madison
Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists | Year: 2012

This study was conducted to determine the relationships between patterns of activity of malt amylolytic enzymes (a-amylase, β-amylase, and limit dextrinase) and sugar production in two- and six-row North American cultivars over the course of Congress mashing and to test two hypotheses: 1) that maximal activity of and rates of increase in β-amylase activity during the initial phases of mashing would correlate better than the other amylolytic enzymes with sugar production and 2) that β-amylase intron III allelic variation would have little to no association with sugar production during mashing. Malts of twelve barley cultivars were mashed in a micro-masher and assayed for amylolytic enzyme activities and sugar levels at 6 time points during the 115 min mashing regime. Peak activities of β-amylase were positively and significantly correlated with wort total sugars (r = 0.704, P = 0.011), glucose (r = 0.654, P = 0.021), and maltose (r = 0.780, P = 0.003) and negatively and significantly correlated with maltotetraose (r = -0.830, P = 0.001) and maltopentaose (r = -0.767, P = 0.004). In contrast, with the same comparisons, there were no significant correlations with wort total sugars for α-amylase and limit dextrinase and only a-amylase significantly correlated with some individual sugars (glucose, r = 0.611, P = 0.035; maltotriose, r = 0.594, P = 0.042; maltotetraose, r = -0.772, P = 0.003; maltopentaose, r = -0.728, P = 0.007). Correlations of rates of change in β-amylase activity from five min to the time of maximal activity versus rates of change in total sugars and individual sugars revealed positive and significant correlations with wort total sugars (r = 0.794, P = 0.002), maltose (r = 0.851, P = 0.0004), and maltotriose (r = 0.605, P = 0.038) and significantly negatively correlated with maltotetraose (r = -0.663, P = 0.019) and maltopentaose (r = -0.677, P = 0.016). In contrast, with the same comparisons, there were no significant correlations with wort total sugars or individual sugars versus a-amylase or limit dextrinase. Least significant difference (LSD) analysis revealed that there was no consistent pattern in total wort sugars and the most and least abundant wort sugars and maltodextrins produced during mashing amongst cultivars with Bmy1.a or Bmy1.b intron III alleles. There were no significant differences in cultivars with Bmy1.a or Bmy1.b intron III alleles producing the highest levels of total wort sugars early in mashing, when the bulk of total sugars are produced, (1st 30 min: Bmy1.a [Legacy, Tradition]; Bmy1.b [Harrington]) and at the end of mashing (Bmy1.a [Legacy, Pinnacle, Tradition]; Bmy1.b [Harrington, Merit]). This study supports both of the proposed hypotheses. © 2012 American Society of Brewing Chemists, Inc. Source

Tsilo T.J.,University of Minnesota | Tsilo T.J.,Small Grain Institute | Simsek S.,North Dakota State University | Ohm J.-B.,Cereal Crops Research Unit | And 3 more authors.
Genome | Year: 2011

Wheat end product quality is determined by a complex group of traits including dough viscoelastic characteristics and bread-making properties. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping and analysis were conducted for endosperm texture, dough-mixing strength, and bread-making properties in a population of 139 (MN99394 × MN98550) recombinant inbred lines that were evaluated at three environments in 2006. Based on the genetic map of 534 loci, six QTL were identified for endosperm texture, with the main QTL on chromosomes 1A (R 2 = 6.6%-17.3%), 5A (R 2 = 6.1%-17.1%), and 5D (R 2 = 15.8%-22%). Thirty-four QTL were identified for eight dough-mixing strength and bread-making properties. Major QTL clusters were associated with the low-molecular weight glutenin gene Glu-A3, the two high-molecular weight glutenin genes Glu-B1 and Glu-D1, and two regions on chromosome 6D. Alleles at these QTL clusters have previously been proven useful for wheat quality, except one of the QTL clusters on chromosome 6D. A QTL cluster on chromosome 6D is one of the novel chromosome regions influencing dough-mixing strength and bread-making properties. The QTL for endosperm texture on chromosomes 1A, 5A, and 5B also influenced flour ash content (12.4%-23.3%), flour protein content (10.5%-12.5%), and flour colour (7.7%-13.5%), respectively. © 2011 Published by NRC Research Press. Source

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