Ceramatec Inc | Date: 2016-09-22
A multi-stage sodium heat engine is provided to convert thermal energy to electrical energy, the multi-stage sodium heat engine including at least a first stage, a second stage, and an electrical circuit operatively connecting the first stage and the second stage with an electrical load. One or more methods of powering an electrical load using a multi-stage sodium heat engine are also described.
Ceramatec Inc | Date: 2016-10-11
Methods, equipment, and reagents for preparing organic compounds using custom electrolytes based on different ionic liquids in electrolytic decarboxylation reactions are disclosed.
SK Innovation Co. and Ceramatec Inc | Date: 2015-08-12
Provided is a sodium secondary battery including: an anode containing sodium; a cathode containing sulfur; a cathode electrolyte solution being in contact with the cathode and capable of conducting sodium ions into and from a solid electrolyte membrane; and a solid electrolyte separating the anode and the cathode electrolyte solution and having sodium ion conductivity. The sodium secondary battery of the present invention overcomes the problems of thermal management and heat sealing due to a high operating temperature, possessed by the existing sodium-sulfur battery or sodium-nickel chloride battery (so called, a ZEBRA battery), and may achieve high a charge and discharge mechanism characteristic.
Ceramatec Inc | Date: 2015-07-29
A method for removing nitrogen from natural gas includes contacting substantially dry natural gas that contains unwanted nitrogen with lithium metal. The nitrogen reacts with lithium to form lithium nitride, which is recovered for further processing, and pipeline quality natural gas. The natural gas may optionally contain other chemical species that may be reduced by lithium, such as carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and small amounts of water. These lithium reducible species may be removed from the natural gas concurrently with the removal of nitrogen. The lithium nitride is subjected to an electrochemical process to regenerate lithium metal. In an alternative embodiment, lithium nitride is reacted with sulfur to form lithium sulfide and nitrogen. The lithium sulfide is subjected to an electrochemical process to regenerate lithium metal and sulfur. The electrochemical processes are advantageously performed in an electrolytic cell containing a lithium ion selective membrane separator.
Ceramatec Inc | Date: 2015-11-23
A reformer is disclosed in one embodiment of the invention as including a channel to convey a preheated plurality of reactants containing both a feedstock fuel and an oxidant. A plasma generator is provided to apply an electrical potential to the reactants sufficient to ionize one or more of the reactants. These ionized reactants are then conveyed to a reaction zone where they are chemically transformed into synthesis gas containing a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. A heat transfer mechanism is used to transfer heat from an external heat source to the reformer to provide the heat of reformation.
Ceramatec Inc | Date: 2015-12-01
An intermediate temperature sodium-halogen secondary cell that includes a negative electrode compartment housing a negative, molten sodium-based electrode and a positive electrode compartment housing a current collector disposed in a highly conductive molten positive electrolyte. A sodium halide (NaX) positive electrode is disposed in a molten positive electrolyte comprising one or more AlX_(3 )salts, wherein X may be the same or different halogen selected from Cl, Br, and I, wherein the ratio of NaX to AlX_(3 )is greater than or equal to one. A sodium ion conductive solid electrolyte membrane separates the molten sodium negative electrode from the molten positive electrolyte. The secondary cell operates at a temperature in the range from about 80 C. to 210 C.
Ceramatec Inc | Date: 2015-06-04
An electrolytic method of producing olefins from alkali metal salts of carboxylic acids is disclosed. The carboxylic acid may be from a variety of sources including fermented biomass that is subsequently neutralized using an alkali metal base. The method enables the efficient production of olefins including alpha-olefins as well as useful olefin products such as synthetic oils.
Ceramatec Inc | Date: 2016-03-04
Electrochemical systems and methods for producing hydrogen. Generally, the systems and methods involve providing an electrochemical cell that includes an anolyte compartment holding an anode in contact with an anolyte, wherein the anolyte includes an oxidizable substance having a higher standard oxidation potential than water. The cell further comprises a catholyte compartment holding a cathode in contact with a catholyte that includes a substance that reduces to form hydrogen. Additionally, the cell includes an alkali cation conductive membrane that separates the anolyte compartment from the catholyte compartment. As an electrical potential passes between the anode and cathode, the reducible substance reduces to form hydrogen and the oxidizable substance oxidizes to form an oxidized product. The pH within the catholyte compartment may be controlled and maintained to a value in the range of 6 to 8. Apparatus and methods to regenerate the oxidizable substance are disclosed.
Ceramatec Inc | Date: 2016-04-15
The present invention provides a sodium-aluminum secondary cell. The cell includes a sodium metal negative electrode, a positive electrode compartment that includes an aluminum positive electrode disposed in a positive electrolyte mixture of NaAl_(2)X_(7 )and NaAlX_(4), where X is a halogen atom or mixture of different halogen atoms selected from chlorine, bromine, and iodine, and a sodium ion conductive electrolyte membrane that separates the negative electrode from the positive electrolyte. In such cases, the electrolyte membrane can include any suitable material, including, without limitation, a NaSICON-type membrane. Generally, when the cell functions, both the sodium negative electrode and the positive electrolyte are molten and in contact with the electrolyte membrane. Additionally, the cell is functional at an operating temperature between about 100 C. and about 200 C.
Ceramatec Inc | Date: 2016-09-29
Alkali metals and sulfur may be recovered from alkali monosulfide and polysulfides in an electrolytic process that utilizes an electrolytic cell having an alkali ion conductive membrane. An anolyte includes an alkali monosulfide, an alkali polysulfide, or a mixture thereof and a solvent that dissolves elemental sulfur. A catholyte includes molten alkali metal. Applying an electric current oxidizes sulfide and polysulfide in the anolyte compartment, causes alkali metal ions to pass through the alkali ion conductive membrane to the catholyte compartment, and reduces the alkali metal ions in the catholyte compartment. Liquid sulfur separates from the anolyte and may be recovered. The electrolytic cell is operated at a temperature where the formed alkali metal and sulfur are molten.