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Fodey T.L.,Agri Food and Biosciences Institute of Northern Ireland | George S.E.,Queens University of Belfast | Traynor I.M.,Agri Food and Biosciences Institute of Northern Ireland | Delahaut P.,CER Groupe | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Immunological Methods | Year: 2013

Thiamphenicol and florfenicol are antibacterial agents permitted for use as veterinary drugs in animals used for food production. However, as the EU has established maximum residue limits for both and the metabolite florfenicol amine, there is a requirement to monitor animal food products for their residues. In this study antisera were generated which can simultaneously detect thiamphenicol, florfenicol and florfenicol amine in an immunoassay. Details of the various coupling techniques employed to prepare immunogens and enzyme labels are provided and the antibodies produced have been assessed, in homologous and heterologous ELISA formats, with respect to sensitivity and specificity. It was found that while the antisera raised to thiamphenicol and florfenicol generally performed better in a heterologous set up, those raised to florfenicol amine were not only less affected by the assay format but also produced the most sensitive antibodies to all three target analytes. Antisera matched previous sensitivity (IC50<1ngmL-1) but had improved cross-reactivity (>100%) to thiamphenicol and florfenicol. © 2013.

De Clercq N.,Ghent University | Vanden Bussche J.,Ghent University | Croubels S.,Ghent University | Delahaut P.,CER Groupe | Vanhaecke L.,Ghent University
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2014

Faecal glucocorticoid analysis is a powerful non-invasive tool for the study of the animal endocrine status and stress physiology, which is mainly carried out by immunoassays, characterised by some limitations. In this study, an ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry (U-HPLC-HRMS) method was developed to confirm the presence of glucocorticoids in bovine faeces during a long-term stability study. Because of the complex nature of faeces, an appropriate extraction and purification procedure was developed. To this extent, a Plackett-Burman experimental design was successfully applied to determine the key conditions for optimal extraction of glucocorticoids from faeces. The targeted analysis, including natural and synthetic glucocorticoids, was successfully validated according to CD 2002/657/EC. Decision limits and detection capabilities for prednisolone, prednisone, methylprednisolone and the metabolites 20α-dihydroprednisolone and 20β-dihydroprednisolone ranged, respectively, from 0.15 to 2.95 μg kg-1 and from 0.40 to 5.20 μg kg-1. Limits of detection and limits of quantification for the natural glucocorticoids dihydrocortisone, cortisol and cortisone ranged, respectively, from 0.55 to 2.10 μg kg-1 and from 0.70 to 5.00 μg kg-1.The stability study of glucocorticoids in faecal matrix demonstrated that lyophilising the faeces, storage at -80°C, and aerobic conditions were optimal for preservation and able to significantly (p < 0.05) limit degradation up to 10 weeks. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Hoppner S.,German Sport University Cologne | Delahaut P.,CER Groupe | Schanzer W.,German Sport University Cologne | Thevis M.,German Sport University Cologne | Thevis M.,European Monitoring Center for Emerging Doping Agents
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis | Year: 2014

The NAD+ depending enzyme SIRT1 regulates the mitochondrial biogenesis, fat and glucose metabolism through catalyzing the deacetylation of several metabolism-related protein-substrates. Recently, synthetic activators of SIRT1 referred to as STACs (Sirtuin activating compounds, e.g. SRT2104) were identified and tested in clinical studies for the treatment of aging-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes, Alzheimer's and obesity. Although the mechanism of SIRT1 activation by small molecules has caused considerable controversy, STACs demonstrated a significant performance enhancement in mice experiments including an improvement of endurance, muscle strength, and locomotor behavior. Due to their potential to increase exercise tolerance in healthy individuals, SIRT1 activators are currently being monitored by anti-doping authorities. In the present study, the in vivo metabolic clearance of three SIRT1 activators was investigated in rats by the collection of urine, DBS (dried blood spots) and plasma samples following a single oral administration. The resulting metabolic products were studied by positive electrospray ionization - (tandem) mass spectrometry and confirmed by the comparison with in vitro generated metabolites using human and rat liver microsomal preparations. Subsequently, a screening procedure for five SIRT1 activators and the metabolite M1-SRT1720 in DBS specimens was developed. Liquid-liquid-extraction and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry was employed based on diagnostic ion transitions recorded in multiple reaction monitoring mode and two deuterated internal standards namely d8-SRT1720 and d8-M1-SRT1720 were utilized. The doping control assay was characterized with regard to specificity, limit of detection (10-50ng/ml), recovery (65-83%) and imprecision (7-20%) and ion suppression/enhancement effects (<10%), demonstrating its fitness-for-purpose for sports drug testing applications. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Thomas A.,German Sport University Cologne | Delahaut P.,CER Groupe | Krug O.,German Sport University Cologne | Schanzer W.,German Sport University Cologne | Thevis M.,German Sport University Cologne
Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2012

New, potentially performance enhancing compounds have frequently been introduced to licit and illicit markets and rapidly distributed via worldwide operating Internet platforms. Developing fast analytical strategies to follow these new trends is one the most challenging issues for modern doping control analysis. Even if reference compounds for the active drugs are readily obtained, their unknown metabolism complicates effective testing strategies. Recently, a new class of small C-terminally amidated peptides comprising four to seven amino acid residues received considerable attention of sports drug testing authorities due to their ability to stimulate growth hormone release from the pituitary. The most promising candidates are the growth hormone releasing peptide (GHRP)-1, -2, -4, -5, -6, hexarelin, alexamorelin, and ipamorelin. With the exemption of GHRP-2, the entity of these peptides represents nonapproved pharmaceuticals; however, via Internet providers, all compounds are readily available. To date, only limited information on the metabolism of these substances is available and merely one metabolite for GHRP-2 is established. Therefore, a comprehensive in vivo (po and iv administration in rats) and in vitro (with human serum and recombinant amidase) study was performed in order to generate information on urinary metabolites potentially useful for routine doping controls. The urine samples from the in vivo experiments were purified by mixed-mode cation-exchange solid-phase extraction and analyzed by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) separation followed by high-resolution/high-accuracy mass spectrometry. Combining the high resolution power of a benchtop Orbitrap mass analyzer for the first metabolite screening and the speed of a quadrupole/time-of-flight (Q-TOF) instrument for identification, urinary metabolites were screened by means of a sensitive full scan analysis and subsequently confirmed by high-accuracy product ion scan experiments. Two deuterium-labeled internal standards (triply deuterated GHRP-4 and GHRP-2 metabolite) were used to optimize the extraction and analysis procedure. Overall, 28 metabolites (at least three for each GHRP) were identified from the in vivo samples and main metabolites were confirmed by the human in vitro model. All identified metabolites were formed due to exopeptidase- (amino- or carboxy-), amidase-, or endopeptidase activity. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

De Clercq N.,Ghent University | Julie V.B.,Ghent University | Croubels S.,Ghent University | Delahaut P.,CER Groupe | Vanhaecke L.,Ghent University
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2013

Due to their growth-promoting effects, the use of synthetic glucocorticoids is strictly regulated in the European Union (Council Directive 2003/74/EC). In the frame of the national control plans, which should ensure the absence of residues in food products of animal origin, in recent years, a higher frequency of prednisolone positive bovine urines has been observed. This has raised questions with respect to the stability of natural corticoids in the respective urine samples and their potential to be transformed into synthetic analogs. In this study, a ultra high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) methodology was developed to examine the stability of glucocorticoids in bovine urine under various storage conditions (up to 20 weeks) and to define suitable conditions for sample handling and storage, using an Orbitrap Exactive™. To this end, an extraction procedure was optimized using a Plackett-Burman experimental design to determine the key conditions for optimal extraction of glucocorticoids from urine. Next, the analytical method was successfully validated according to the guidelines of CD 2002/657/EC. Decision limits and detection capabilities for prednisolone, prednisone and methylprednisolone ranged, respectively, from 0.1 to 0.5μgL-1 and from 0.3 to 0.8μgL-1. For the natural glucocorticoids limits of detection and limits of quantification for dihydrocortisone, cortisol and cortisone ranged, respectively, from 0.1 to 0.2μgL-1 and from 0.3 to 0.8μgL-1. The stability study demonstrated that filter-sterilization of urine, storage at -80°C, and acidic conditions (pH 3) were optimal for preservation of glucocorticoids in urine and able to significantly limit degradation up to 20 weeks. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

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