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Vojdani A.,CEO of Immunosciences Labs Inc. | Vojdani A.,Loma Linda University
Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine | Year: 2015

Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins present throughout nature that act as agglutinins. Approximately 30% of our food contains lectins, some of which may be resistant enough to digestion to enter the circulation. Because of their binding properties, lectins can cause nutrient deficiencies, disrupt digestion, and cause severe intestinal damage when consumed in excess by an individual with dysfunctional enzymes. These effects are followed by disruption of intestinal barrier integrity, which is the gateway to various autoimmunities. Shared amino acid motifs between dietary lectins, exogenous peptides, and various body tissues may lead to crossreactivity, resulting in the production of antibodies against lectin and bacterial antigens, followed by autoimmunity. The detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG) or immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies against specific lectins may serve as a guide for the elimination of these lectins from the diet. It is proposed that this process can reduce the peripheral antigenic stimulus and, thereby, result in a diminution of disease symptoms in some-but not all-patients with autoimmune disorders. © 2015, InnoVision Communications. All right rserved.


Vojdani A.,CEO of Immunosciences Labs Inc. | Vojdani A.,Loma Linda University
Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine | Year: 2015

Context Certain individuals are sensitive enough to react to peanuts and peanut oil, sometimes with deadly effect. It is thus crucial to have an accurate testing methodology for the assessment of allergies and immune reactivities to peanuts and their components, such as agglutinins and oleosins. Currently, skin-prick testing is performed only with the water-soluble components of peanut proteins and can produce false negatives. Testing with all possible food antigens and with both immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies may offer a more accurate alternative. Objective The research team intended to measure IgG and IgE antibodies against peanut proteins, agglutinins, and oleosins to identify variations in IgG and IgE immune reactivities to these antigens among the general population. Design Sera from 288 healthy individuals—144 males of different ethnicities, aged 18-65 y with a median age of 35.5 y, and 144 females of different ethnicities, aged 18-65 y with a median age of 36.2 y—were obtained from Innovative Research, Inc. Four sera from patients with a known allergy to peanuts and 4 sera from individuals with no known allergy to peanuts were used as positive and negative controls. Several wells in the microtiter plate were coated with unrelated proteins, such as human serum albumin, rabbit serum albumin, and bovine serum albumin and used only for the determination of any background in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Setting: Immunosciences Lab, Inc, Los Angeles, CA, USA. Outcome Measures The sera were screened for peanutspecific IgG and IgE antibodies against water-soluble proteins of peanut, peanut agglutinins, and peanut oleosins, using the ELISA. Color development was measured at 405 nM. For demonstration of the specificity of the antibodies, inhibition ELISA was performed with 4 sera that had very high levels of IgG and IgE antibodies. Results Using mean values as the cutoff, 19%, 17%, and 22% of the specimens tested for IgG antibodies and 14%, 11%, and 14% of the specimens tested for IgE antibodies produced high levels of antibodies against peanut proteins, agglutinins, and oleosins, respectively. Conclusions The study’s findings support the proposition that IgE sensitization to foods may not necessarily coincide with positive prick tests to commercial extracts. Falsely negative skin testing or IgG, IgA, or IgE antibody testing is often linked to the nature of the preparation of the food antigens and their use in in-vivo and in-vitro testing. The study’s results support the need to improve the quality of food extracts used in the diagnosis of allergies and immune reactivity to nuts and seeds. Testing should use all possible food antigens and measure both IgG and IgE antibodies. © 2015, InnoVision Communications. All right rserved.


Vojdani A.,CEO of Immunosciences Labs Inc. | Vojdani A.,Loma Linda University | Vojdani C.,Immunosciences Laboratory Inc.
Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine | Year: 2015

Context Different kinds of gums from various sources enjoy an extremely broad range of commercial and industrial use, from food and pharmaceuticals to printing and adhesives. Although generally recognized as safe by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), gums have a history of association with sensitive or allergic reactions. In addition, studies have shown that gums have a structural, molecular similarity to a number of common foods. A possibility exists for cross-reactivity. Objective Due to the widespread use of gums in almost every aspect of modern life, the overall goal of the current investigation was to determine the degree of immune reactivity to various gum antigens in the sera of individuals representing the general population. Design The study was a randomized, controlled trial. Participants; 288 sera purchased from a commercial source. Outcome Measures The sera was screened for immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies against extracts of mastic gum, carrageenan, xantham gum, guar gum, gum tragacanth, locust bean gum, and β-glucan, using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing. For each gum antigen, inhibition testing was performed on the 4 sera that showed the highest IgG and IgE immune reactivity against the different gums used in the study. Inhibition testing on these same sera for sesame albumin, lentil, corn, rice, pineapple, peanut, pea protein, shrimp, or kidney bean was used to determine the cross-reactivity of these foods with the gum. Results Of the 288 samples, 4.2%-27% of the specimens showed a significant elevation in IgG antibodies against various gums. Only 4 of 288, or 1.4%, showed a simultaneous elevation of the IgG antibody against all 7 gum extracts. For the IgE antibody, 15.6%-29.1% of the specimens showed an elevation against the various gums. A significant percentage of the specimens, 12.8%, simultaneously produced IgE antibodies against all 7 tested extracts. Conclusions Overall, the percentage of elevation in IgE antibodies against different gum extracts, with the exception of carrageenan, was much higher than for the IgG antibody. The results of the current study showed that a subgroup of healthy individuals who produced not only IgG but also IgE antibodies against various gums may suffer from hidden food immune reactivities and sensitivities. Further study is needed to examine the clinical importance of gums and cross-reactive food antibodies in symptomatic individuals. © 2015, InnoVision Communications. All right rserved.


Vojdani A.,CEO of Immunosciences Labs Inc. | Vojdani A.,Loma Linda University | Vojdani C.,Immunosciences Laboratory Inc.
Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine | Year: 2015

Artificial food dyes are made from petroleum and have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the enhancement of the color of processed foods. They are widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries to increase the appeal and acceptability of their products. Synthetic food colorants can achieve hues not possible for natural colorants and are cheaper, more easily available, and last longer. However, since the use of artificial food coloring has become widespread, many allergic and other immune reactive disorders have increasingly been reported. During the past 50 y, the amount of synthetic dye used in foods has increased by 500%. Simultaneously, an alarming rise has occurred in behavioral problems in children, such as aggression, attention deficit disorder (ADD), and attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The ingestion of food delivers the greatest foreign antigenic load that challenges the immune system. Artificial colors can also be absorbed via the skin through cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. The molecules of synthetic colorants are small, and the immune system finds it difficult to defend the body against them. They can also bond to food or body proteins and, thus, are able to act in stealth mode to circumvent and disrupt the immune system. The consumption of synthetic food colors, and their ability to bind with body proteins, can have significant immunological consequences. This consumption can activate the inflammatory cascade, can result in the induction of intestinal permeability to large antigenic molecules, and could lead to cross-reactivities, autoimmunities, and even neurobehavioral disorders. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recently found a 41% increase in diagnoses of ADHD in boys of high-school age during the past decade. More shocking is the legal amount of artificial colorants allowed by the FDA in the foods, drugs, and cosmetics that we consume and use every day. The consuming public is largely unaware of the perilous truth behind the deceptive allure of artificial color. © 2015, InnoVision Communications. All right rserved.


Vojdani A.,CEO of Immunosciences Labs Inc. | Vojdani A.,Loma Linda University
Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine | Year: 2015

The mucosal immune system is constantly exposed to challenges from the antigenic substances found in food and released from the body’s own microbial flora. The body’s normal tolerance to friendly antigenic substances can be disrupted by a number of factors, such as disease, injury, shock, trauma, surgery, drugs, blood transfusion, environmental triggers, etc. When this disruption happens, the ingestion of foods containing antigenic substances that have compositions similar to those of the body’s autoantigens can result in the production of antibodies that react not only against the food antigens but also the body’s own tissues. This response is known as food autoimmune reactivity. Between 7% and 10% of the world’s population suffers from some form of autoimmune disease. Each patient’s antibodies, both immunoglobulin A (IgA) + immunoglobulin M (IgM) in the saliva and immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA in the blood must be examined to give a complete picture of food immune reactivity. A host of health problems and autoimmune disorders have increasingly become associated with some of the most commonly consumed foods in the world, such as wheat and milk. Many of these problems can be traced to molecular mimicry. The peptide sequences of foods such as milk and wheat are similar to those of human molecules, such as myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, human islet cell tissue, and human aquaporin 4 (AQP4). This similarity can result in cross-reactivity that leads to food autoimmunity and even autoimmune disorders, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), celiac disease (CD), and neuromyelitis optica. Further research is needed to determine what other foods have dangerous sequence similarities to human tissues and what methods are available to test for the autoantibodies resulting from these molecular, mimicry-induced misfires of the immune system. The identification and removal of corresponding food triggers can then be used as the basis of therapy. © 2015, InnoVision Communications. All right rserved.

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