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Hanus J.,Centrum vyzkumu globalni zmeny AV CR | Fabianek T.,Centrum vyzkumu globalni zmeny AV CR | Kaplan V.,Centrum vyzkumu globalni zmeny AV CR | Zemek F.,Centrum vyzkumu globalni zmeny AV CR
International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference Surveying Geology and Mining Ecology Management, SGEM | Year: 2013

Airborne imaging spectroscopy techniques (also often called airborne hyperspectral remote sensing) are providing unique operational tools for local-to-regional spatial and temporal monitoring of landscape status and change. Compared to traditional multispectral data, it offers a continuous coverage of electromagnetic spectra within their spectral range, where the so-called "spectral signatures" of the surface are acquired rather than discrete values within broad spectral bands. This allows a development of new methods for Earth surface object detection including a high accuracy target detection and/or quantitative retrieval of surface properties. The application of hyperspectral remote sensing data in the scientific and even the commercial community for creation of maps is quite broad - from agriculture (yield prediction and precise farming), forestry (forest health status, biomass estimation, species composition mapping) through geology (e.g. mapping of minerals, land degradation assessment), up to limnology (e.g. water quality evaluation), and other domain (e.g. military). Numbers of hyperspectral data providers are now present for surveys in Europe. However, each is using specific processing chain and harmonized quality indicators and quality layers accompanying hyperspectral data are often missing. That was the rationale for formation of the Joint Research Activity JRA2 "HYQUAPRO" within the FP7 EUFAR project (http://www.eufar.net). JRA2 was focused on developing of standardized quality layers for hyperspectral data. Partners of HYQUAPRO are among others PML/NERC, INTA, DLR, VITO/RSL, CVGZ - GzechGlobe, TAU, FUB, so all major processing facilities for airborne hyperspectral image data in Europe are included. Finally 13 quality layers were agreed to be a common base, which each hyperspectral data provider should incorporate into the processing chain. According to differences among sensors and data processing approaches, each data provider may include additional quality layers, specific to their pre-processing chain. Since 2004, the Global Change Research Centre - CzechGlobe (CVGZ, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic) has been operating the VNIR airborne hyperspectral sensor AISA Eagle. The AISA Eagle system is being produced by Spectral Imaging (Specim Ltd, Finland) company. A typical pre-processing of airborne hyperspectral data will be demonstrated in pre-processing chain which has been established at CzechGlobe including quality layers developed for the CzechGlobe pre-processing chain. © SGEM2013 All Rights Reserved by the International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference SGEM.

Potopova V.,Czech University of Life Sciences | Zahradnicek P.,Centrum vyzkumu globalni zmeny AV CR | Turkott L.,Czech University of Life Sciences
Listy Cukrovarnicke a Reparske | Year: 2015

This study deals with agroclimatic assessment of variability of the growing season length for sugar beet cultivation over the period 1961-2013 in Central Bohemia. For the purpose of the analysis, the number of favourable days during sowing, germination, and final harvest periods was identified. In the decade 1961-1970 the growing season was shorter due to delays in the onset of spring, whereas in the decade 1971-1980 the main cause of shorter growing seasons was their early termination. The date of the beginning of the growing season shifted noticeably towards an earlier date since 1980s. However, from 1991-2000, the growing season parameters are characterized by a large temporal variability. In the period of 2001-2010 an intensified lengthening of the growing season was detected. In 2012, the onset of the growing season advanced by 10 days compared to the long-term average, whilst in 2013, the onset of the growing season delayed by 14 days. From 2000 to 2013, the highest share of days without rainfall during the sowing and germination of sugar beet occurred in the following years: 2005 (95%) 2012 (81%) and 2011 (77%). In the 14 monitored years, days without precipitation tended to prevail over days with precipitation during the growing season in 11 cases. © 2015, Listy Cukrovarnicke a Reparske. All rights reserved.

Kovac D.,Centrum vyzkumu globalni zmeny AV CR | Ac A.,Centrum vyzkumu globalni zmeny AV CR | Sigut L.,Centrum vyzkumu globalni zmeny AV CR | Klem K.,Centrum vyzkumu globalni zmeny AV CR | Urban O.,Centrum vyzkumu globalni zmeny AV CR
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis | Year: 2012

Retrieving information on the plant physiological status from spectral reflectance is a challenging task in many ways. The easiest way to get the information is through normalized vegetation indices, that are based on a normalization of reflectance in specific wavebands. Beside the most common spectral indices such as Photochemical Reflectance Index PRI or Normalized Difference Vegetation Index NDVI, several new indices has been proposed during the past decade as potential physiological indicators. In this paper, the performance of several of them for determining the physiological status of the foliage is evaluated on an experimental Norway spruce needles (Picea abies (L.) Karst) plot. Four needle classess of 27 years old spruce have been sampled throughout cloudy and sunny day. Needle classes were represented by the needles of the branchlets of the 4th, 7th, 9th and 12th whorls. Study was conducted on one-year old needles and sampling ran over several times a day to separate influence of dynamic processess on parameters. Results show that the ratio of reflectance in the green and red region (presented as ratio of reflectance at 560 nm and 694 nm) outperforms the others examinated vegetation indices, and suggest that it would be best suited for the characterization of the leaf status. Being always the highest in the uppermost part of the crown and the lowest in shaded part of the crown, parameter is strictly stratificated throughout the crown. Furthermore, parameter values correspond with intensity of physiological processess ongoing in needles during midday The values of the other indicators seem to be affected by leaf pigment content and morphology too much. Neither PRI nor NDVI were able to distinguish differences in needle properties sufficiently.

The invention pertains to a method of obtaining structural and functional information on proteins, based on polarization fluorescence microscopy, which comprises subjecting a protein tagged with a fluorophore to two- or multi-photon fluorescence microscopy, whereas the observed protein is irradiated with a laser beam with light of at least two different polarizations, which excites the fluorescence of the fluorophore, and wherein information on localization, intensities and polarizations of the fluorescence excited by the different polarizations of the excitation laser beam is used to identify, localize and quantify anisotropy of absorption and/or fluorescence, which information is then used to infer structural and functional properties of proteins. An example of a device for obtaining structural and functional information on proteins, based on polarization fluorescence microscopy, comprises a modulator (P) for rapid modulation of the excitation beam (1) for eliciting two- or multi-photon fluorescence, and a control unit (R), wherein the function of the modulator (P) and control unit (R) is synchronized with scanning of the microscope (M) such that information on fluorescence intensity acquired by the microscope (M) is attributable to a particular polarization state of the excitation beam (1) by virtue of knowing the temporal profile of the polarization modulation of the excitation beam (1) effected by the modulator (P). The method and device of the invention allow determining and monitoring structure and function of proteins, such as membrane proteins, and thereby observing physiological processes in living cells.

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