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Diabetes mellitus and obesity are among the major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, which are the most common cause of mortality among adults in the Czech Republic. Cancer diseases placed second. An increased frequency of cancers was observed in patients with diabetes mellitus and obese subjects. Both units represent an independent risk factor for neoplasia. In the Czech Republic and in the world there is an increasing number of patients with obesity and diabetes, as well as with pancreatic cancer. Although the exact mechanisms of neoplastic transformation are not fully known, there already appears information about the key regulatory steps which in obese result in insulin resistance, glucose metabolism disorders, topical mild chronic inflammation in adipose tissue, formation of oxygen free radicals and alltogether in cell proliferation. The severity and poor prognosis of pancreatic cancer is the reason for an effort to influence these intermediate steps. Source

Broz J.,Inteni klinika 2 | Krivanova L.S.,Inteni klinika 2 | Fedakova Z.,Inteni klinika 2 | Petrosyan L.,Yerevan State Medical University | And 2 more authors.
Vnitrni Lekarstvi | Year: 2016

Diabetes mellitus is a disease which may affect the eligibility to hold a driving license and increase the risk of a road accident. Hypoglycemia while driving is considered to be the most risky situation, with diabetes increasing the mentioned risk for instance due to impaired vision in the case of possible retinopathy. The group of drivers with diabetes being at the greatest risk as to accidents are those with a case history of severe hypoglycemia or hypoglycemia occurred while driving, or possibly of a road accident. Measuring glycaemia before driving and their knowledge how to prevent and treat hypoglycemia - Those are the two crucial preventive elements indispensable for insulin treated diabetes patients in order to secure safe road traffic. Source

Hrneioova D.,Centrum Pro Vyzkum Diabetu
Diabetologie Metabolismus Endokrinologie Vyziva | Year: 2015

Cobalamin (vitamin B12) belongs to group B vitamins soluble in water; it is an essential human nutrient - acts as a cofactor of two colalamin-dependent enzymes. A deficiency of cobalamin leads to anemia and neuropathy. Its recommended daily requirement for adults is 2-4 μg. Biosynthesis of cobalamin is nowadays restricted to certain bacteria and archaea; industrially is produced by selected and genetically optimized microorganisms, mainly by Propionibacterium shermanii and Pseudomonas denitrificans strains. Some plants and many animals including humans require cobalamin but do not synthetize it. Naturally rich source of cobalamin is food of animal origin: meat, fish, shellfish, milk and dairy products, eggs. In plant foods, substantial amounts of active form of cobalamin were found in certain species of edible algae-Enteromorpha sp. and Porphyra sp. (known as nori), in some eukaryotic microalgae (Chlorella sp.), edible mushrooms (e.g. Shiitake) and tempeh-fermented soya product. However, reliability of this plant sources remains uncertain. Source

Brunerova L.,Centrum Pro Vyzkum Diabetu | Andel M.,Centrum Pro Vyzkum Diabetu
Vnitrni Lekarstvi | Year: 2014

The review article summarizes the principles of hedonic regulation of food intake which represents the food intake independent on the maintenance of homeostasis. The theory describing hedonic regulation, so called Incentive Salience Theory, comprises three major processes: liking (positive attribution to food stimulus), wanting (motivation to gain it) and learning (identification of these stimuli and distinguishing them from those connected with aversive reaction). Neuronal reward circuits are the anatomical and functional substrates of hedonic regulation. They react to gustatory and olfactory (or visual) stimuli associated with food intake. A food item is preferred in case its consumption is connected with a pleasant feeling thus promoting the behavioural reaction. The probability of this reaction after repetitive exposure to such a stimulus is increased (learned preference). On the contrary, learned aversion after repetitive exposure is connected with avoidance of a food item associated with a negative feeling. Main mediators of hedonic regulation are endocannabinoids, opioids and monoamines (dopamine, serotonin). Dopamine in dorsal striatum via D2 receptors generates food motivation as a key means of survival, however in ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens) is responsible for motivation to food bringing pleasure. Serotonin via its receptors 5-HT1 A a T-HT2C decreases intake of palatable food. It plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of eating disorders, particularly mental anorexia. There, a food restriction represents a kind of automedication to constitutionally pathologically increased serotonin levels. Detailed understanding of processes regulating food intake is a key to new pharmacological interventions in eating disorders. Source

Fontana J.,Centrum Pro Vyzkum Diabetu | Cervinkova Z.,Ustav fyziologie Lekarske fakulty | Andel M.,Centrum Pro Vyzkum Diabetu
Vnitrni Lekarstvi | Year: 2013

Effects of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) on liver cells are very intensively studied. In the metabolism of saccharides GLP-1 stimulates synthesis of glycogen and reduces glucose production - thus acting like insulin. In the lipid metabolism it enhances fatty acid oxidation and lipid transport from hepatocytes while reducing de novo lipogenesis - effects more similar to glucagon action. Some studies suggest beneficial effects of GLP-1 on oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, production of inflammatory mediators and dysfunction of biliary secretion. Current results suggest that drugs affecting incretin system could be used in the treatment of certain liver diseases (e.g. NAFLD and NASH) in the future. In the following article we mention the known effects of GLP-1 on liver functions and liver metabolism and we point out its possible future therapeutic use in the treatment of liver diseases. Source

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