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Szala S.,Centrum Onkologii Instytut Im. Marii Sklodowskiej Curie
Postpy higieny i medycyny doświadczalnej (Online)

Growth of tumors usually depends on the development of the tumor's own vasculature. Small avascular tumors (1-2 mm3) cannot continue growth provided an equilibrium between pro-angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors is maintained within the tumor environment. Angiogenesis is not the only factor responsible for tumor blood vessels forming, as vasculogenic mimicry plays an equally substantial role in this process. Vessel-like structures formed during this process are made up from cancer cells, macrophages and mast cells. Certain neoplasms are capable of growing without developing their own vasculature; instead they secure growth via normal blood vessels of the host. Slowed-down blood flow through an abnormally built tumor vascular network is the main reason for cancer cells' underoxygenation (hypoxia). Defective blood vessels, with hypoxia resulting, play a major role in tumor progression. Underoxygenation induces formation of novel vessels and these new defective vessels are in turn the principal reason for hypoxia. The latter increases cancer cells' malignancy and invasiveness. A particular process, called transdifferentiation, takes place in tumor vasculature when hypoxia is present and involves neoplastic cells transforming into endothelial cells. Since growth of a tumor is dependent on its own blood supply, inhibition of such vascular network growth and/or damage to this network should exert a strong impact on tumor growth. Long-term administration of anti-angiogenic drugs, however, encounters unexpected problems. Anti-angiogenic drug resistance, together with paradoxical stimulation of invasiveness and metastasis by these drugs, has lately become a dominant issue in anticancer therapy. Source

Schoffski P.,University Hospitals Leuven | Adkins D.,University of Washington | Blay J.-Y.,University of Lyon | Gil T.,Free University of Colombia | And 9 more authors.
European Journal of Cancer

Background Cixutumumab (IMC-A12), a fully human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) monoclonal antibody, exerts preclinical activity in several sarcoma models and may be effective for the treatment of these tumours. Methods In this open-label, multicentre, phase 2 study, patients with previously treated advanced or metastatic rhabdomyosarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, adipocytic sarcoma, synovial sarcoma or Ewing family of tumours received intravenous cixutumumab (10 mg/kg) for 1 h every other week until disease progression or discontinuation. The primary end-point was the progression-free survival rate (PFR), defined as stable disease or better at 12 weeks. In each tier of disease histology, Simon's optimum 2-stage design was applied (PFR at 12 weeks P0 = 20%, P1 = 40%, α = 0.10, β = 0.10). Stage 1 enrolled 17 patients in each disease group/tier, with at least four patients with stable disease or better required at 12 weeks to proceed to stage 2. Results A total of 113 patients were enrolled; all tiers except adipocytic sarcoma were closed after stage 1 due to futility. The 12-week PFR was 12% for rhabdomyosarcoma (n = 17), 14% for leiomyosarcoma (n = 22), 32% for adipocytic sarcoma (n = 37), 18% for synovial sarcoma (n = 17) and 11% for Ewing family of tumours (n = 18). Median progression-free survival (weeks) was 6.1 for rhabdomyosarcoma, 6.0 for leiomyosarcoma, 12.1 for adipocytic sarcoma, 6.4 for synovial sarcoma and 6.4 for Ewing family of tumours. Among all patients, the most frequent treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs) were nausea (26%), fatigue (23%), diarrhoea (23%) and hyperglycaemia (20%). Conclusions Patients with adipocytic sarcoma may benefit from treatment with cixutumumab. Cixutumumab treatment was well tolerated, with limited gastrointestinal AEs, fatigue and hyperglycaemia. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Petrylak D.P.,Yale Cancer Center | Vogelzang N.J.,Us Oncology Research | Budnik N.,Russian Railways | Wiechno P.J.,Centrum Onkologii Instytut Im. Marii Sklodowskiej Curie | And 18 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology

Background: Patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer have few treatment options. We investigated the safety and efficacy of lenalidomide, an immunomodulatory agent with anti-angiogenic properties, in combination with docetaxel and prednisone in chemotherapy-naive patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Methods: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study, we randomly assigned chemotherapy-naive patients with progressive metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer in a 1:1 ratio to receive docetaxel (75 mg/m2) on day 1 and prednisone (5 mg twice daily) on days 1-21 and either lenalidomide (25 mg) or placebo once daily on days 1-14 of each 21 day treatment cycle. Permuted block randomisation was done with an interactive voice response system and stratified by Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, geographic region, and type of disease progression. Clinicians, patients, and investigators were masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was overall survival. Efficacy analysis was by intention to treat. Patients who received at least one dose of study drug were included in the safety analyses. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00988208. Findings: 1059 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned between Nov 11, 2009, and Nov 23, 2011 (533 to the lenalidomide group and 526 to the control group), and 1046 patients received study treatment (525 in the lenalidomide group and 521 in the placebo group). At data cutoff (Jan 13, 2012) after a median follow-up of 8 months (IQR 5-12), 221 patients had died: 129 in the lenalidomide group and 92 in the placebo group. Median overall survival was 17·7 months (95% CI 14·8-18·8) in the lenalidomide group and not reached in the placebo group (hazard ratio [HR] 1·53, 95% CI 1·17-2·00, p=0·0017). The trial was subsequently closed early due to futility. The number of deaths that occurred during treatment or less than 28 days since the last dose were similar in both groups (18 [3%] of 525 patients in the lenalidomide group vs 13 [2%] of 521 patients). 109 (21%) patients in the lenalidomide group and 78 (15%) in the placebo group died more than 28 days from last dose, mainly due to disease progression. At least one grade 3 or higher adverse event was reported in 381 (73%) of 525 patients receiving lenalidomide and 303 (58%) of 521 patients receiving placebo. Grade 3-4 neutropenia (114 [22%] for lenalidomide vs 85 [16%] for placebo), febrile neutropenia (62 [12%] vs 23 [4%]), diarrhoea (37 [7%] vs 12 [2%]), pneumonia (24 [5%] vs five [1%]), dyspnoea (22 [4%] vs nine [2%]), asthenia (27 [5%] vs 17 [3%]), and pulmonary embolism (32 [6%] vs seven [1%]) occurred more frequently in the lenalidomide group than in the placebo group. Interpretation: Overall survival with the combination of lenalidomide, docetaxel, and prednisone was significantly worse than with docetaxel and prednisone for chemotherapy-naive men with metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer. Further research with this treatment combination is not warranted. Funding: Celgene Corporation. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Jagiello-Gruszfeld A.,Nzoz Onko Med | Tjulandin S.,Russian Cancer Research Center | Manikhas A.,St. Petersburg City Oncological Dispensary | Pienkowski T.,Centrum Onkologii Instytut Im. Marii Sklodowskiej Curie | And 3 more authors.

Introduction: Lapatinib, an orally active tyrosine kinase inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor ErbB1 (EGFR) and ErbB2 (HER2), has activity as monotherapy and in combination with chemotherapy in HER2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Methods: This phase II single-arm trial assessed the safety and efficacy of first-line lapatinib in combination with paclitaxel in previously untreated patients with HER2-overexpressing MBC. The primary endpoint was the overall response rate (ORR). Secondary endpoints were the duration of response (DoR), time to response, time to progression, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival, and the incidence and severity of adverse events. All endpoints were investigator- and independent review committee (IRC)-assessed. Results: The IRC-assessed ORR was 51% (29/57 patients with complete or partial response) while the investigator-assessed ORR was 77% (44/57). As per the IRC, the median DoR was 39.7 weeks, and the median PFS was 47.9 weeks. The most common toxicities were diarrhea (56%), neutropenia (44%), rash (40%), fatigue (25%), and peripheral sensory neuropathy (25%). Conclusions: First-line lapatinib plus paclitaxel for HER2-overexpressing MBC produced an encouraging ORR with manageable toxicities. This combination may be useful in first-line treatment for patients with HER2-overexpressing MBC and supports the ongoing evaluation of this combination as first-line therapy in HER2-overexpressing MBC. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

Witczak K.,University Medyczny Im Karola Marcinkowskiego znaniu | Sajdak S.,University Medyczny Im Karola Marcinkowskiego znaniu | Kojs Z.,Centrum Onkologii Instytut Im. Marii Sklodowskiej Curie
Current Gynecologic Oncology

Age-related increase of risk of developing a genital malignancy in the females, increasing level of health awareness in general population, improved oncologic prevention, better diagnostic techniques and therapies, all of them contribute to increased number of patients at menopausal age completing oncological treatment. The problem concerns also young women, who require radical surgical consisting in oophorectomy, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. An increasingly frequent problem in the gynecologic practice is the use of hormonal replacement therapy in patients with a history of malignancy. Oophorectomy before menopause results in development of atrophic lesions in estrogen- dependent tissues, osteoporosis, cardiovascular and urogenital diseases, sexual dysfunction, vasomotor disorders and compromised quality of life, resulting in disorders of lipid metabolism and affects mental condition. An absolute contraindication for hormonal replacement therapy during menopause is active estrogen-dependent malignancy. Other clinical situations and controversies associated therewith concerning safety, particularly in view of hormone-dependent tumors, result in several attempts at development of uniform and generally accepted guidelines concerning the use of hormonal replacement therapy in menopausal women. This paper discusses hormonalreplacement therapy in the context of its role in the carcinogenesis process and its use in patients with current or past history of a malignancy. The aim of this paper is to present current state-of-the-art in the aspect of safety of hormonal replacement therapy in patients with a malignancy: endometrial cancer, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, cervical cancer, vulvar cancer and also benign tumors, e.g. uterine myoma and endometrial cyst. Source

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