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PubMed | Centro Veterinario Specialistico, University of Liverpool, Eye Vet Referrals, Small Animal Veterinary Clinic Paris III and University of Bari
Type: | Journal: Parasites & vectors | Year: 2016

Nematodes of the genus Angiostrongylus are important causes of potentially life-threatening diseases in several animal species and humans. Angiostrongylus vasorum affects the right ventricle of the heart and the pulmonary arteries in dogs, red foxes and other carnivores. The diagnosis of canine angiostrongylosis may be challenging due to the wide spectrum of clinical signs. Ocular manifestations have been seldom reported but have serious implications for patients.The clinical history of three cases of infection with A. vasorum in dogs diagnosed in UK, France and Italy, was obtained from clinical records provided by the veterinary surgeons along with information on the diagnostic procedures and treatment. Nematodes collected from the eyes of infected dogs were morphologically identified to the species level and molecularly analysed by the amplification of the nuclear 18S rRNA gene.On admission, the dogs were presented with various degrees of ocular discomfort and hyphema because of the presence of a motile object in the eye. The three patients had ocular surgery during which nematodes were removed and subsequently morphologically and molecularly identified as two adult males and one female of A. vasorum.Three new cases of canine ocular angiostrongylosis are reported along with a review of other published clinical cases to improve the diagnosis and provide clinical recommendation for this parasitic condition. In addition, the significance of migratory patterns of larvae inside the host body is discussed. Veterinary healthcare workers should include canine angiostrongylosis in the differential diagnosis of ocular diseases.


Di Girolamo N.,Centro Veterinario Specialistico | Selleri P.,Centro Veterinario Specialistico
Veterinary Clinics of North America - Exotic Animal Practice | Year: 2015

The medical approach to chelonians can be challenging. Cystoscopy may be useful to evaluate morphologic changes in the viscera without the need of celiotomy, and is a valuable diagnostic tool. The size and transparency of the urinary bladder in chelonians allows visualization of most coelomic organs. Through cystoscopy the external aspect of stomach, intestine, heart, lungs, liver, pancreas, spleen, kidneys, testes, and ovaries may be visualized. Although a definitive diagnosis cannot be achieved, rapid identification of the diseased system through cystoscopy may be possible. Furthermore, cystoscopy is fundamental for diagnosis and treatment of lower urogenital disorders. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


Selleri P.,Centro Veterinario Specialistico | Di Girolamo N.,Centro Veterinario Specialistico | Novari G.,Ematos Vet Laboratory
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association | Year: 2014

Objective-To evaluate performance of a human portable blood glucose meter (PBGM), a veterinary PBGM, and a veterinary benchtop analyzer for measuring blood glucose concentration in rabbits and to evaluate the effect of sample characteristics on their performance. Design-Observational prospective cross-sectional study. Sample-Blood samples from 89 pet rabbits. Procedures-Blood glucose concentration was measured with a human PBGM (n = 89 rabbits), a veterinary PBGM (89), and a benchtop analyzer (32) and compared with results obtained with plasma in a laboratory analyzer (hexokinase method). Results-The human PBGM underestimated blood glucose concentration, had decreased accuracy at high Hcts, and had the lowest total error observed (11.4%). The veterinary PBGM overestimated blood glucose concentration, had decreased accuracy at low Hcts and at high blood glucose concentrations, and had the highest total error (15.5% and 29.8% for canine and feline settings, respectively). The benchtop analyzer had good accuracy and was not influenced by Hct or glucose concentrations. Clinical errors would have occurred in 0% of cases with the human PBGM and with the benchtop analyzer and in 9% (canine setting) to 6.7% (feline setting) of cases with the veterinary PBGM. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results suggested that use of the human PBGM evaluated in this study would be acceptable for point-of-care testing of blood glucose concentration in rabbits when benchtop analyzers are not available. The use of the veterinary PBGM evaluated in this study may alter both treatment and diagnostic decisions because of the overestimation of glucose concentrations in some rabbits.


Genchi M.,University of Milan | Ferrari N.,University of Milan | Fonti P.,Centro Veterinario Specialistico | De Francesco I.,University of Milan | And 2 more authors.
Veterinary Parasitology | Year: 2014

A study was carried out to assess the possible relation between the number of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus larvae per gram of feces (LPG) with respiratory signs and radiographic findings in naturally infected cats. Out of 196 owned cats, 52 (26.5%) were found infected with A. abstrusus. Positive cats were divided into 4 age groups (1, 2-6 months; 2, 7-11 months; 3, 1-5 years and, 4, >6 years). Thoracic radiographs in double orthogonal views were carried out and cats were ranked on the basis of the respiratory signs (0, no symptoms; 1, mild; 2, moderate and 3, severe symptoms) and radiographic changes. Data showed that increasing LPGs were associated with higher probability to develop more severe symptoms, although some asymptomatic cats had high number of LPGs. Radiographic score and LPGs decreased with increasing cat age. A. abstrusus should be included in the differential diagnosis of lung diseases also in cats with mild respiratory symptoms. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | Centro Veterinario Specialistico
Type: Evaluation Studies | Journal: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association | Year: 2014

To evaluate performance of a human portable blood glucose meter (PBGM), a veterinary PBGM, and a veterinary benchtop analyzer for measuring blood glucose concentration in rabbits and to evaluate the effect of sample characteristics on their performance.Observational prospective cross-sectional study.Blood samples from 89 pet rabbits.Blood glucose concentration was measured with a human PBGM (n = 89 rabbits), a veterinary PBGM (89), and a benchtop analyzer (32) and compared with results obtained with plasma in a laboratory analyzer (hexokinase method).The human PBGM underestimated blood glucose concentration, had decreased accuracy at high Hcts, and had the lowest total error observed (11.4%). The veterinary PBGM overestimated blood glucose concentration, had decreased accuracy at low Hcts and at high blood glucose concentrations, and had the highest total error (15.5% and 29.8% for canine and feline settings, respectively). The benchtop analyzer had good accuracy and was not influenced by Hct or glucose concentrations. Clinical errors would have occurred in 0% of cases with the human PBGM and with the benchtop analyzer and in 9% (canine setting) to 6.7% (feline setting) of cases with the veterinary PBGM.Results suggested that use of the human PBGM evaluated in this study would be acceptable for point-of-care testing of blood glucose concentration in rabbits when benchtop analyzers are not available. The use of the veterinary PBGM evaluated in this study may alter both treatment and diagnostic decisions because of the overestimation of glucose concentrations in some rabbits.


PubMed | Centro Veterinario Specialistico and University of Wisconsin - Madison
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The veterinary clinics of North America. Exotic animal practice | Year: 2015

The surgical approach to reptiles can be challenging. Reptiles have unique physiologic, anatomic, and pathologic differences. This may result in frustrating surgical experiences. However, recent investigations provided novel, less invasive, surgical techniques. The purpose of this review was to describe the technical aspects behind soft tissue surgical techniques that have been used in reptiles, so as to provide a general guideline for veterinarians working with reptiles.


PubMed | Centro Veterinario Specialistico
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The veterinary clinics of North America. Exotic animal practice | Year: 2015

The medical approach to chelonians can be challenging. Cystoscopy may be useful to evaluate morphologic changes in the viscera without the need of celiotomy, and is a valuable diagnostic tool. The size and transparency of the urinary bladder in chelonians allows visualization of most coelomic organs. Through cystoscopy the external aspect of stomach, intestine, heart, lungs, liver, pancreas, spleen, kidneys, testes, and ovaries may be visualized. Although a definitive diagnosis cannot be achieved, rapid identification of the diseased system through cystoscopy may be possible. Furthermore, cystoscopy is fundamental for diagnosis and treatment of lower urogenital disorders.


PubMed | Centro Veterinario Specialistico
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The veterinary clinics of North America. Exotic animal practice | Year: 2016

In the last few years, significant improvement in diagnosis and treatment of ferret emergencies has occurred. Scientific advances demonstrated the need of specific practices when dealing with emergencies in ferrets. The risk of overdiagnosis of hypoglycemia with human portable blood glucose meters is a clear example. The purpose of this article is to describe the current approach to common medical and surgical emergencies in ferrets.


PubMed | Centro Veterinario Specialistico and University of Teramo
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Asian Pacific journal of tropical biomedicine | Year: 2014

Asian palm civets (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus), or toddy cats, belong to the family Viverridae. Little is known about the pathology of these animals and few articles have been published, mainly concerning their important role as wild reservoir hosts for severe infectious diseases of domestic animals and human beings. A 4-year-old, female Asian palm civet was found dead by the owner. At necropsy, large amount of adipose tissue was found in the subcutis and in the peritoneal cavity. Most of the pancreas appeared red, translucent. Hepatomegaly, discoloration of the liver were evident, with multifocal areas of degeneration, characterized by white nodular lesions. Histologically, the pancreas showed severe interstitial and perilobular necrosis and extensive haemorrhages, with separation of the interstitium, mild reactive inflammation at the periphery of the pancreatic lobules. Liver showed multifocal foci of vacuolar degeneration, lipidic accumulation, sometimes associated to hepatocyte necrosis. A diagnosis of acute severe hemorrhagic-necrotizing pancreatitis (or acute pancreatic necrosis) associated with pancreatic and hepatic lipidosis was made. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first case report of acute lethal pancreatitis in an Asian palm civet. Although the exact cause of the disease remains undetermined, a hypothesis of the cause and pathogenesis is discussed, pointing out dietary indiscretion and consequent overweight as possible important risk factors.


PubMed | Centro Veterinario Specialistico, University of Perugia, Ultravet Diagnostic, Animal Endocrine Clinic and Tyrus Clinica Veterinaria
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Veterinary radiology & ultrasound : the official journal of the American College of Veterinary Radiology and the International Veterinary Radiology Association | Year: 2016

Gall bladder necrosis and rupture are life-threatening conditions in dogs requiring surgical intervention and early diagnosis is essential. Human patients with suspected gall bladder necrosis/rupture are commonly evaluated with contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS), however this procedure has not been described in dogs with suspected gall bladder necrosis/rupture. In a prospective diagnostic cohort study, CEUS (using SonoVue contrast medium) was performed in 93 dogs with gallbladder lesions identified by abdominal conventional ultrasonography. Necrosis/rupture was identified by CEUS as a focal lack of enhancement of the gallbladder wall. Dogs with positive CEUS finding for necrosis/rupture (complete lack of regional wall enhancement) underwent immediate surgery as did dogs with other biliary disorders requiring surgery. Dogs with negative CEUS findings or those not requiring surgery were managed medically. In cases undergoing surgery, necrosis/rupture was confirmed intraoperatively (and via histopathology). Absence of necrosis/rupture was confirmed either intraoperatively (via histopathology) or was assumed to be absent by complete recovery with medical management. Forty-nine dogs underwent surgery and cholecystectomy: 24 had necrosis/rupture. CEUS was more accurate (100% sensitive and specific) in diagnosing gallbladder wall necrosis/rupture than conventional ultrasonography (75% sensitive and 81% specific) (P < 0.03). In conclusion, CEUS provides accurate characterization of gallbladder wall integrity that can impact decisions regarding clinical management, either surgical or medical.

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