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Batista R.M.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | Rosetti E.P.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | Zandonade E.,Centro Universitario Of Vila Velha | Roelke L.H.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | And 2 more authors.
Cadernos de Saude Publica | Year: 2012

The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between periodontal disease and increased thickness of the carotid artery intimamedia complex. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 220 adults (age ≥ 35 years) among participants in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Carotid artery ultrasound and periodontal clinical examinations were conducted and included visible plaque index, gingival bleeding on probing index, probing pocket depth (PPD), and clinical attachment level (CAL). Individuals with increased carotid artery thickness showed fewer teeth and higher frequency of CAL ≥ 3mm, CAL ≥ 4mm, CAL ≥ 5mm, and CAL ≥ 6mm and PPD ≥ 4mm (p < 0.05). Despite the use of 18 definitions for periodontal disease, only one confirmed the hypothesis of an association between periodontal disease and subclinical atherosclerosis. Individuals with 10% or more sites with CAL ≥ 4mm were more likely to present carotid thickening.

Almeida A.P.,University of Sao Paulo | Almeida A.P.,Centro Universitario Luterano | Souza T.D.,Centro Universitario Of Vila Velha | Marcili A.,University of Sao Paulo | Labruna M.B.,University of Sao Paulo
Journal of Medical Entomology | Year: 2013

This study evaluated infection by vector-borne agents in 58 crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous L.) that were road-killed in an Atlantic rainforest reserve in the state of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil. Spleen, lung, or blood samples collected from the foxes were tested in the laboratory by a battery of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays targeting bacteria of the genera Rickettsia, Borrelia, Coxiella, Anaplasma, and Ehrlichia; and protozoa of the genera Babesia, Hepatozoon, and Leishmania. Of the targeted organisms, evidence of infection in the foxes was detected for Ehrlichia and Hepatozoon organisms only. Overall, six (10.3%) foxes were infected by an ehrlichial agent closely related to an ehrlichial agent recently detected in free-ranging Jaguars [(Panthera onca (L.)] in central-western Brazil, and to Ehrlichia ruminantium. For Hepatozoon, 28 (48.3%) foxes were infected by an agent closely related to Hepatozoon sp. Curupira 2 and H. americanum; and one (1.7%) fox was infected by an organism closely related to reptile-associated Hepatozoon agents. Finally, 11 (19.0%) foxes were found infested by Amblyomma cajennense (F.) nymphs, which were all PCR negative for the range of vector-borne agents cited above. Because the haplotypes found in free-ranging foxes are genetically closely related to pathogens of great veterinary importance, namely E. ruminantium and H. americanum, it is highly desirable to know if these novel organisms have any important role as agents of diseases in domestic animals and wildlife in Brazil. © 2013 Entomological Society of America.

Lage A.M.C.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | Joyeux J.-C.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | Gomes L.C.,Centro Universitario Of Vila Velha
Acta Scientiarum - Biological Sciences | Year: 2011

This work evaluated the spawning of sea urchin Lytechinus variegates based on lunar cycle and population characteristics. Eight monthly collections were realized to estimate the gonadosomatic index (GI) and population parameters regarding reproduction. To evaluate the effect of the lunar cycle on spawning, samples were taken for each moon phase of three lunar cycles. In the entire work 295 individuals were collected, 156 males and 131 females (1.19:1 ratio). However, there was no significant difference in the sex ratio of the population. The weight of males was significantly greater than that of females. There were no differences between males and females in gonadosomatic index (GI), gonad weight and diameter. There was an effect of the lunar periodicity on spawning, with lower GI in new moon, indicating that spawning occurs on the first lunar quarter in spring tide.

Dalpiaz P.L.M.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | Lamas A.Z.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | Caliman I.F.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | Medeiros A.R.S.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | And 6 more authors.
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research | Year: 2013

Sex hormones modulate the action of both cytokines and the renin-angiotensin system. However, the effects of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) on the proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels in male and female spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) are unclear. We determined the relationship between ACE activity, cytokine levels and sex differences in SHR. Female (F) and male (M) SHR were divided into 4 experimental groups each (n = 7): sham + vehicle (SV), sham + enalapril (10 mg/kg body weight by gavage), castrated + vehicle, and castrated + enalapril. Treatment began 21 days after castration and continued for 30 days. Serum cytokine levels (ELISA) and ACE activity (fluorimetry) were measured. Male rats exhibited a higher serum ACE activity than female rats. Castration reduced serum ACE in males but did not affect it in females. Enalapril reduced serum ACE in all groups. IL-10 (FSV = 16.4 ± 1.1 pg/mL; MSV = 12.8 ± 1.2 pg/mL), TNF-α (FSV = 16.6 ± 1.2 pg/mL; MSV = 12.8 ± 1 pg/mL) and IL-6 (FSV = 10.3 ± 0.2 pg/mL; MSV = 7.2 ± 0.2 pg/mL) levels were higher in females than in males. Ovariectomy reduced all cytokine levels and orchiectomy reduced IL-6 but increased IL-10 concentrations in males. Castration eliminated the differences in all inflammatory cytokine levels (IL-6 and TNF-α) between males and females. Enalapril increased IL-10 in all groups and reduced IL-6 in SV rats. In conclusion, serum ACE inhibition by enalapril eliminated the sexual dimorphisms of cytokine levels in SV animals, which suggests that enalapril exerts systemic anti-inflammatory and anti-hypertensive effects.

Pereira O.G.,Federal University of Vicosa | Rovetta R.,Centro Universitario Of Vila Velha | Ribeiro K.G.,Federal University of Vales do Jequitinhonha and Mucuri | Santos M.E.R.,Federal University of Vicosa | And 2 more authors.
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia | Year: 2012

The objective this study was to evaluate the growth rates of Tifton 85 bermudagrass under four nitrogen levels (0, 33, 66, 100, and 133 kg/ha N) and harvested at three plant heights (30, 40 and 50 cm). The experimental design was completely randomized in a split plot scheme with three replications. Nitrogen rates were set in the plots and plants heights in the subplots. For all variables, the interaction N rate × plant height was not significant. The net assimilatory rate and relative growth rate of Tifton 85 increased with increasing N rates. The leaf area ratio (LAR) decreased linearly with plant height at harvesting. In contrast, the LAR increased linearly with N rate. Linearly, the leaf weight ratio decreased with plant height at harvesting, and increased with N rate. The specific leaf area of Tifton 85 bermudagrass was influenced linear and positively only by nitrogen fertilization. The leaf area index (LAI) of Tifton 85 bermudagrass increased by about 0.05 unit for each centimeter increase in plant height at harvesting. There was a quadratic response of N in LAI of Tifton 85 bermudagrass. The increase of bermudagrass height at harvesting season decreases the participation of leaf blade in the forage. The nitrogen increases the growth rate of Tifton 85 bermudagrass. To ensure efficient harvesting of forage, the increase of N rate for Tifton 85 Bermudagrass implies a reduction in the harvest interval. © 2012 Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia.

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