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Santos-Filho M.,Mato Grosso State University | Frieiro-Costa F.,Centro Universitario Of Lavras Unilavras | Ignacio A.R.A.,Mato Grosso State University | Silva M.N.F.,National Institute of Amazonian Research
Brazilian Journal of Biology | Year: 2012

Non-volant small mammals are organisms capable of yielding precise information on richness, abundance and species composition variations related to the use of habitats. The aim of this research was to compare these variations in Cerrado sensu stricto, Palm Forest, Gallery Forest and Rocky Field. From May 1999 to February 2000, we surveyed non-volant small mammals (hence small mammals) in Serra das Araras Ecological Station. We captured 218 individuals and recaptured 62 individuals, belonging to 21 taxa, 13 rodents and eight marsupials, in a total of 13200 trap-nights. Capture success was 1.7%. We observed higher richness of small mammals in forested areas (Gallery Forest and Palm Forest) than in open areas (Rocky Field and Cerrado sensu stricto). The Palm Forest had the highest richness of marsupials, possibly due to the quality of a specific niche. The Rocky Field had the smallest richness, but with very high abundance of few species, mainly Thrichomys pachyurus and Monodelphis domestica. Forest habitats had similar species composition. The open habitats, Cerrado sensu stricto and Rocky Field, had a distinct species composition between them, and also when compared to forested areas. Different species are exclusive or showed preference for specific habitats. The protection of horizontally heterogeneous biomes, such as Cerrado, has a fundamental importance to the maintenance of the regional diversity of the small mammal community of Central Brazil. Source

Duarte W.F.,Federal University of Lavras | Duarte W.F.,IBB Institute for Biotechnology And Bioengineering | Dragone G.,IBB Institute for Biotechnology And Bioengineering | Dias D.R.,Centro Universitario Of Lavras Unilavras | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2010

Sixteen different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces bayanus were evaluated in the production of raspberry fruit wine. Raspberry juice sugar concentrations were adjusted to 16°Brix with a sucrose solution, and batch fermentations were performed at 22°C. Various kinetic parameters, such as the conversion factors of the substrates into ethanol (Yp/s), biomass (Yx/s), glycerol (Yg/s) and acetic acid (Yac/s), the volumetric productivity of ethanol (Qp), the biomass productivity (Px), and the fermentation efficiency (Ef) were calculated. Volatile compounds (alcohols, ethyl esters, acetates of higher alcohols and volatile fatty acids) were determined by gas chromatography (GC-FID). The highest values for the Ef, Yp/s, Yg/s, and Yx/s parameters were obtained when strains commonly used in the fuel ethanol industry (S. cerevisiae PE-2, BG, SA, CAT-1, and VR-1) were used to ferment raspberry juice. S. cerevisiae strain UFLA FW 15, isolated from fruit, displayed similar results. Twenty-one volatile compounds were identified in raspberry wines. The highest concentrations of total volatile compounds were found in wines produced with S. cerevisiae strains UFLA FW 15 (87,435μg/L), CAT-1 (80,317.01μg/L), VR-1 (67,573.99μg/L) and S. bayanus CBS 1505 (71,660.32μg/L). The highest concentrations of ethyl esters were 454.33μg/L, 440.33μg/L and 438μg/L for S. cerevisiae strains UFLA FW 15, VR-1 and BG, respectively. Similar to concentrations of ethyl esters, the highest concentrations of acetates (1927.67μg/L) and higher alcohols (83,996.33μg/L) were produced in raspberry wine from S. cerevisiae UFLA FW 15. The maximum concentration of volatile fatty acids was found in raspberry wine produced by S. cerevisiae strain VR-1. We conclude that S. cerevisiae strain UFLA FW 15 fermented raspberry juice and produced a fruit wine with low concentrations of acids and high concentrations of acetates, higher alcohols and ethyl esters. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

Simoes M.H.,Federal University of Lavras | Souza-Silva M.,Centro Universitario Of Lavras Unilavras | Ferreira R.L.,Federal University of Lavras
Acta Carsologica | Year: 2014

Due to their high economic value, karstic areas and caves have been affected for decades in Brazil. Accordingly, such systems have been receiving the attention of managers, environmental agencies and researchers, especially in recent years. The present study collected information regarding the cave invertebrate fauna of the Northwest region of Minas Gerais, Brazil, such as species richness and endemisms, besides the impacts and threats occurring in these environments, identifying caves and more vulnerable areas and proposing conservation actions. Three caves were identified as a priority for conservation: Lagoa Rica cave in Paracatu, and Lapa Nova and Lapa da Delza caves in Vazante. Another three areas were considered in need of conservation actions: regions of Arinos, Paracatu and Cabeceira Grande/Unaí. The main threat found in the area was the conversion of forests into pastures for cattle breeding, registered in the surroundings of 85% of the caves. The main recommendations were the recuperation of the surroundings, awareness raising of the population and biospeleological inventories in other caves of the area. The studied caves were very heterogeneous, presenting unique characteristics. Thus, the study of the highest possible number of caves of the region of interest is always recommended, to aid in conservation and action plans for cave fauna. Source

Duarte W.F.,Federal University of Lavras | Duarte W.F.,IBB Institute for Biotechnology And Bioengineering | Dias D.R.,Centro Universitario Of Lavras Unilavras | Oliveira J.M.,IBB Institute for Biotechnology And Bioengineering | And 4 more authors.
Food Research International | Year: 2010

To evaluate the potential for fermentation of raspberry pulp, sixteen yeast strains (S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus) were studied. Volatile compounds were determined by GC-MS, GC-FID, and GC-PFPD. Ethanol, glycerol and organic acids were determined by HPLC. HPLC-DAD was used to analyse phenolic acids. Sensory analysis was performed by trained panellists. After a screening step, CAT-1, UFLA FW 15 and S. bayanus CBS 1505 were previously selected based on their fermentative characteristics and profile of the metabolites identified. The beverage produced with CAT-1 showed the highest volatile fatty acid concentration (1542.6μg/L), whereas the beverage produced with UFLA FW 15 showed the highest concentration of acetates (2211.1μg/L) and total volatile compounds (5835μg/L). For volatile sulphur compounds, 566.5μg/L were found in the beverage produced with S. bayanus CBS 1505. The lowest concentration of volatile sulphur compounds (151.9μg/L) was found for the beverage produced with UFLA FW 15. In the sensory analysis, the beverage produced with UFLA FW 15 was characterised by the descriptors raspberry, cherry, sweet, strawberry, floral and violet. In conclusion, strain UFLA FW 15 was the yeast that produced a raspberry wine with a good chemical and sensory quality. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Chaboo C.S.,University of Kansas | Frieiro-Costa F.A.,Centro Universitario Of Lavras Unilavras | Gomez-Zurita J.,University Pompeu Fabra
Journal of Natural History | Year: 2014

Leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae; ~40,000 species) are commonly solitary animals but subsociality, maternal care of broods, is known in Cassidinae and Chrysomelinae. We report 11 novel records from Brazil and Peru, bringing the number of subsocial chrysomelids to 35 species in 10 genera. Two evolutionary models of chrysomelid subsociality have been proposed. One proposed three independent origins within Chrysomelinae, based on the potential phylogenetic positions of subsocial genera. The other hypothesised that an evolutionary arms race between chrysomelid prey and their predators, parasites, and parasitoids has led to an escalation of defences. Using our phylogenies, we propose that subsociality originated independently in Cassidinae and Chrysomelinae, and several times within each subfamily. Subsociality was preceded by particular behaviours. In Cassidinae, exophagous larvae with chemically offensive faecal weaponry preceded aggregated living, group defences (e.g. cycloalexy), and maternal guarding. In Chrysomelinae, offensive glandular compounds preceded ovi- and viviparity before subsociality. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis. Source

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