Mattozo V.C.,Federal University of Parana |
Faria L.R.R.,Federal University of Parana |
Faria L.R.R.,Centro Universitario do Norte do Espirito Santo |
Melo G.A.R.,Federal University of Parana
Papeis Avulsos de Zoologia | Year: 2011
Surveys of orchid bees at the Brazilian Atlantic forest have been restricted to a few regions, making difficult to understand latitudinal patterns of distribution and diversity of these bees. For this reason we sampled the euglossine fauna at Atlantic forest areas at the coastal region of São Paulo (Sete Barras, Faz. Morro do Capim: SP3) and state of Paraná (Antonina, Reserva Natural do Rio Cachoeira: PR3), in southern Brazil. In PR3, we also evaluated the efficiency of collecting methods for sampling the fauna, comparing bait traps with direct collecting using entomological nets on fragrance baits. The diversity and abundance of bees was very low: we caught only 39 males of eight species in SP3 (Euglossa iopoecila, Euglossa roderici, Eulaema nigrita, Euglossa annectans, Eulaema cingulata, Euglossa pleosticta, Euglossa viridis and Exaerete smaragdina) and 254 males of six species in PR3 (Euglossa iopoecila, Euglossa annectans, Euglossa stellfeldi, Euglossa roderici, Euglossa pleosticta and Eulaema nigrita). Comparing the sampling methodologies, use of insect nets on fragrance baits (six species; 221 specimens) was more efficient than bait traps (three species; 33 specimens). When comparing the faunas of these two areas with other surveys at the Atlantic forest sites, through a DCA analysis, we found that the two surveys presented in this paper were placed relatively close to each other, but apart from the other sites analyzed, not clustering with the southernmost survey at the subtropical Atlantic forest of Rio Grande do Sul or with the remaining surveys carried out at northern lowland sites of this biome.
Effects of aluminum, nitrate and ammonium on the growth, potassium content and composition of amino acids in Stylosanthes [Efectos de aluminio, nitrato y amonio en el crecimiento, contenido de potasio y composición de aminoácidos en Stylosanthes]
Teixeira do Amaral J.A.,Federal University of Espirito Santo |
Braga Rena A.,Federal University of Vicosa |
Teixeira Cordeiro A.,Federal University of Vicosa |
Romais Schmildt E.,Centro Universitario do Norte do Espirito Santo
Idesia | Year: 2013
The effects of the aluminum, nitrate and ammonium interaction, in nutritive solution, were studied under controlled conditions. An analysis was performed on the growth, potassium concentrations, and percentage composition of N of the amino acids in Stylosanthes guianensis and S. macrocephala, sensitive and resistant, respectively, both to aluminum and to ammonium. The ammonium nutrition reduced the growth of the S. guianensis drastically. The ammonium toxicity, verified only in the S. guianensis, was associated to the stimulation of the metabolic routes syntheses of proline and arginine, starting from the glutamic acid, to the detriment of the glutamine synthesis. The aluminum partially alleviated the ammonium toxicity in the S. guianensis, increasing the asparagine retention and reducing the arginine composition in the root system. In the presence of the nitric source, the aluminum increased the potassium concentrations only in the S. macrocephala. In the presence of nitric source, the interconversion of N-aminic was influenced by aluminum in both species, however the percentage composition of N-amino acids was more modified in the S. macrocephala.