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de Almeida L.B.,University of the State of Amazonas | Barbosa M.G.V.,University of the State of Amazonas | Martinez-Espinosa F.E.,Gerencia de Entomologia e Malaria | Martinez-Espinosa F.E.,Centro Universitario Nilton Lins
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical | Year: 2010

Introduction: The SIVEP-Malaria Epidemiological Surveillance Information System has been in use for notification of malaria cases diagnosed in Brazil since 2003. This study analyzed malaria cases notified among women aged 10 to 49 years between 2003 and 2006, according to the presence or absence of pregnancy. Methods: Authorization to evaluate the data was requested from the Health Surveillance Foundation (FVS). Results: Over this period, 13,308 malaria cases were notified, of which 815 (6.1%) were among pregnant women. There was a gradual decrease in the absolute numbers of cases among pregnant and non-pregnant women. Regarding species, 14.3% of the notified cases were caused by Plasmodium falciparum; 85% by Plasmodium vivax and 0.6% by both of them. The frequency of Plasmodium falciparum infection was greater among pregnant women than among non-pregnant women (p > 0.05). Although most of the cases lived in the eastern zone of the city, the western zone appeared to be the likely location of infection in 39% of the cases. Endemic peaks of malaria in July and August were observed among the non-pregnant women in all four years analyzed. Conclusions: The data showed that SIVEP-Malaria was an important tool for determining the distribution of malaria cases and that it should be used for controlling the endemic disease. However, the data from its first four years of operation showed that the quality was compromised by data entry failures, using the field of notification of pregnancy as an example.

Cohen-Carneiro F.,Federal University of Amazonas | Rebelo M.A.B.,Federal University of Amazonas | Souza-Santos R.,Escola Nacional de Saude Publica Sergio Arouca | Ambrosano G.M.B.,University of Campinas | And 3 more authors.
Cadernos de Saude Publica | Year: 2010

The objectives of this study were: (1) test the psychometric properties of OHIP-14 in a rural population; and (2) compare the oral health impacts in two riverine communities in the Brazilian Amazon that were living at different distances from an urban center. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional study in a consecutive sample (n = 126). The validity was assessed through the association of OHIP with clinical and subjective variables, which showed a more significant association with: pain, caries, need of extraction or endodontic treatment; than with tooth loss, periodontal disease or need of prostheses. The stability and internal consistency were good (ICC = 0.97; Cronbach's α = 0.89). The prevalence of oral impacts was greater in the community far from the urban center [70.3 (59.9-80.7)] than in the community closer to it [44.3 (30.7-57.7)], and in women [66.7 (56.0-77.3)] in comparison with men [49.1 (35.3-62.7)]. The OHIP-14 adapted to rural populations in Amazonas State was valid, reproducible, and consistent. There was high prevalence of impacts, especially for riverine communities that lived far from urban centers.

Siqueira T.,University of Guelph | Siqueira T.,Federal University of São Carlos | Bini L.M.,Federal University of Goais | Roque F.O.,Federal University of Grande Dourados | And 4 more authors.
Ecography | Year: 2012

Ecologists have long investigated why communities are composed of a few common species and many rare species. Most studies relate rarity to either niche differentiation among species or spatial processes. There is a parallel between these processes and the processes proposed to explain the structure of metacommunities. Based on a metacommunity perspective and on data on stream macroinvertebrates from different regions of Brazil, we answer two questions. 1) Are sets of common and rare species affected by similar niche and spatial processes? 2) How does the community composition of common and of rare species differ? The main hypothesis we test is that common species are mainly affected by environmental factors, whereas rare species are mostly influenced by dispersal limitation. We used variation partitioning to determine the proportion of variation explained by the environment and space in common and rare species matrices. Contrary to our expectations, evidence supported the idea that both common and rare species are affected mainly by environmental factors, even after controlling for the differing information content between common and rare species matrices. Moreover, the abundance of some common species is also a good predictor of variation in rare species matrices. Niche differences are unlikely to be the sole cause of patterns of rarity in these metacommunities. We suggest that sets of common and rare species react to similar major environmental gradients and that rare species also respond to processes that operate at a more fine-grained spatial scale, particularly biotic interactions. We extend the view that species sorting is the dominant process structuring metacommunities and argue that future studies focusing on rarity would benefit from a metacommunity perspective. © 2011 The Authors. Ecography © 2012 Nordic Society Oikos.

da Silva N.C.,Federal University of Amazonas | Garnelo L.,Centro Universitario Nilton Lins | Giovanella L.,Escola Nacional de Saude Publica Sergio Arouca ENSP
Saude e Sociedade | Year: 2010

This paper analyzes seven years of implementation of Programa Saúde da Família (PSF - Family Health Program) in the city of Manaus, state of Amazonas, aiming at identifying its influence on changes in the municipal health care system that are capable of contributing to the reduction in health care inequalities. It contextualizes the genesis of the PSF in the municipality, its characteristics, contradictions and limitations, thus investigating whether the program has built only a coverage extension history or whether it has effectively contributed to the reorganization of the primary health care model. The analysis categories prioritized specific management principles of the PSF: substitutive nature, integration with institutions and social organizations, territorialization, situational planning based on the family and community, popular participation and social control. The methodology was qualitative- quantitative, including the analysis of data from two studies evaluating the implementation of the PSF in the municipality, carried out in 2001 and 2006. The results show that, in Manaus, the PSF is a coverage extension strategy, with partial superposition on the preexisting primary medical care structure and parallelism of actions. Given the conditions of its implementation we conclude that the PSF expresses itself as an isolated program within the municipal health care system, with the potentiality to become a restructuring strategy of primary health care in Manaus. The confluence with the implementation of the Sanitary Districts may be able to contribute to redirect the medical attention model, thus assuring integral care and concretizing the right to health.

Guilhon-Simplicio F.,Centro Universitario Nilton Lins | Guilhon-Simplicio F.,Federal University of Amazonas | De Meneses Pereira M.,Federal University of Amazonas
Quimica Nova | Year: 2011

Species of the Byrsonima genus are widely distributed around the neotropical zone, being frequently used in folk medicine to treat gastrointestinal, respiratory and skin diseases. This article briefly reviews the ethnopharmacology, pharmacology and phytochemistry of the Byrsonima genus. Eighty three compounds isolated from different species are reported, most of them being flavonoids or triperpenes. The pharmacological studies carried out with the extracts from these plants emphasize on the antimicrobial activity, however other activities have also been investigated leading to promising results. The data presented in this work strongly supports the view that plants of Byrsonima genus have potential therapeutic action.

Inoue L.A.K.A.,EMBRAPA - Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária | Boijink C.L.,EMBRAPA - Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária | Ribeiro P.T.,Centro Universitario Nilton Lins | da Silva A.M.D.,Inpa | Affonso E.G.,Inpa
Acta Amazonica | Year: 2011

Tambaqui is the main farmed fish in the Western Amazon. However, in handling this fish has to be anesthetized for safety purposes, usually when evaluating growth and health conditions. Eugenol, the main component of clove oil, has been reported as an alternative fish anesthetic, because it is an inexpensive natural product. However, continued studies are necessary about the metabolic responses of tropical fish to anesthetics. The present work evaluated metabolic responses of tambaqui to eugenol in simulated anesthetic baths, measuring blood and plasma parameters. Typical metabolic stress responses to handling were detected, but they were not totally reduced by eugenol. On the other hand, the anesthetic dissolved in water did not provoke any extra charge of stress during short-term exposures in concentrations of about 20mg L-1 for 15 min.

Souza J.P.B.L.D.,Centro Universitario Nilton Lins | Nozawa S.R.,Centro Universitario Nilton Lins | Honda R.T.,Centro Universitario Nilton Lins | Honda R.T.,Laboratorio Of Bioquimica
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2012

The objective of this work was to estimate the quantity of mercury residue present in dental amalgam that is generated and discarded in the city of Manaus (Amazon-Brazil). For this purpose, the locations of amalgam usage (10 public and 31 private dental clinics), the method by which the residue is discarded (14 clinics improper disposal), and the analysis of total mercury in the sediment of the controlled landfill (2.68-3 lgHg/g), were described. It was concluded that: there are dental clinics in the city that discard mercury residue into the common waste disposal system, which contravenes health safety standards. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.

Couceiro S.R.M.,Centro Universitario Nilton Lins | Hamada N.,National Institute of Amazonian Research | Forsberg B.R.,National Institute of Amazonian Research | Padovesi-Fonseca C.,University of Brasilia
Austral Ecology | Year: 2011

This study assessed the results of anthropogenic sediment input on macroinvertebrate trophic structure in streams located in an area of oil and natural gas exploitation in Brazil's Amazon forest. The results indicate that macroinvertebrate communities both in streams impacted by anthropogenic sediments and in non-impacted streams are composed mainly of taxa in the following functional feeding groups: predators, gathering-collectors, scrapers, shredders and filtering-collectors. The highest densities were observed for collector-gatherers, followed by scrapers, predators, shredders and filtering-collectors. However, both the richness and the density of all groups were reduced in impacted streams. The reductions were significantly related to suspended inorganic sediment load and to the colour of suspended sediments. The relative proportion of shredders in streams impacted by anthropogenic sediments was significantly reduced as compared with the proportion observed in non-impacted streams. This resulted from lower availability of coarse particulate organic matter in these streams owing to burial of leaves and other plant material. These results indicate changes in the functioning and productivity of streams owing to anthropogenic siltation. This is because the benthic macroinvertebrate communities, sampled during this study, were dependent on the degradation of leaves, which are the primary energy source sustaining the benthic foodweb. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Ecological Society of Australia.

Alexandre M.A.,Fundacao de Medicina Tropical do Amazonas | Alexandre M.A.,University of the State of Amazonas | Alexandre M.A.,Centro Universitario Nilton Lins | Ferreira C.O.,Fundacao de Medicina Tropical do Amazonas | And 11 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010

We describe a case series of 17 patients hospitalized in Manaus (western Brazilian Amazon) with PCR-confi rmed Plasmodium vivax infection who were treated with chloroquine and primaquine. The major complications were jaundice and severe anemia. No in vivo chloroquine resistance was detected. These data help characterize the clinical profi le of severe P. vivax malaria in Latin America.

Duarte R.M.,National Institute for Research in the Amazon | Honda R.T.,Centro Universitario Nilton Lins | Val A.L.,National Institute for Research in the Amazon
Aquatic Toxicology | Year: 2010

The main goal of this study was to investigate the toxicological effects of the chemical dispersant Corexit 9500, crude oil and the combination of the two components in the form of chemically dispersed crude oil (CO + DIS) on the ion regulation of the tropical fish tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum). Gill ion regulation was evaluated on the basis of unidirectional flux measurements (influx-Jin, efflux-Jout and net flux-Jnet) of Na+, Cl- and K+. Plasma ion composition, haematocrit, haemoglobin and glucose concentrations in the blood of tambaqui were determined by classical methods. The exposure of fish to chemically dispersed crude oil promoted a significant increase in Jout Na+ across the gills, which, together with the inability of fish to stimulate Na+ uptake to compensate for these losses resulted in significantly higher Jnet Na+ outward, particularly within the first 3 h of exposure. Increased outward Jnet Cl- was also seen in fish that were exposed to dispersed crude oil, whereas outward Jnet K+ was only increased at crude oil dispersed in higher concentration of Corexit 9500. Plasma Na+ and Cl- concentrations decreased between 6 and 12 h of exposure, whereas Ca2+ concentrations remained significantly lower than those of the control group over the entire experimental period. There were significant increases in plasma K+ concentrations and in the haematocrit after 6 and 24 h of exposure to dispersed crude oil, suggesting significant changes in the permeability of the erythrocytic membrane. Collectively, our results suggest that chemically dispersed crude oil promotes a more extensive impairment of gill ion regulation, in addition to changes in plasma ion levels and blood parameters, in tambaqui compared with exposure to Urucu crude oil or Corexit 9500 alone. Thus, in the event of an oil spill in Amazonian waters, the chemical dispersion of Urucu crude oil could represent a great risk to tambaqui, challenging their ability to maintain ionic and osmotic gradients in native ion-poor waters. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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