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Abreu A.G.,Federal University of Maranhao | Marques S.G.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Monteiro-Neto V.,Federal University of Maranhao | Monteiro-Neto V.,Centro Universitario do Maranhao | Goncalves A.G.,Federal University of Maranhao
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology | Year: 2013

The number of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in community-acquired urinary tract infections worldwide is probably underestimated because of the technical difficulties encountered with their detection. In this study, out of 5,672 urine samples analyzed, 916 were positive for uropathogens, 472 of them being enterobacteria of which 7.6% produced β-lactamases. Analysis of the isolated from 36 patients showed a high level of antibiotic resistance, with 52.7% and 80.5% of isolates expressing blaTEM and blaCTX-M, respectively. © 2013, Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia.

Gehring C.,State University of Maranhao | Zelarayan M.L.C.,State University of Maranhao | Almeida R.B.,State University of Maranhao | Moraes F.H.R.,Centro Universitario do Maranhao
Acta Amazonica | Year: 2011

Babassu (Attalea speciosa C.Martius, Arecaceae) is a palm with extraordinary socioeconomic and ecologic importance in large areas of tropical Brazil, especially in frequently burned and degraded landscapes. Nevertheless, surprisingly little is known about this keystone species. This paper investigates the allometry of babassu, in order to improve understanding on palm architecture and to provide researchers with an efficient tool for aboveground biomass estimation of juvenile and adult palms. Juvenile leaf biomass can be accurately predicted with the easily measurable minimum diameter of rachis at 30 cm extension. Adult palm biomass can be estimated based on woody stem height, a variable fairly easily measurable on-field. Leaf biomass of adult palms was highly variable, averaged 31.7% of aboveground biomass and can be estimated only indirectly through the relationships between wood: leaf-ratio and total aboveground biomass. Carbon contents varied little in the babassu palm, without size- or growth-stage related differences, suggesting the general applicability of values (42.5% C for stems, 39.8% C for leaves). As a consequence of the limited secondary diameter growth inherent to palms, stem diameter of adult palms is unrelated to palm height and biomass. Stem tapering decreases with increasing palm height. This is partially compensated by increasing wood density in near cylindrical stems. Nevertheless, maximum babassu palm height of about 30 meters appears to be dictated by mechanical stability constraints. All allometric relationships of babassu described in this study are not affected by vegetation stand age, indicating the general applicability of these relationships.

Miranda J.P.,University of Campinas | Ricci-Lobao A.,Centro Universitario do Maranhao | Rocha C.F.D.,State University of Rio de Janeiro
Zoologia | Year: 2010

We studied the structural habitat use and the thermal ecology of Gonatodes humeralis (Guichenot, 1855) in São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil, to examine intersexual differences in the use of perch features and to simultaneously analyze reciprocal differences on thermal ecology between the sexes. Gonatodes humeralis body temperature was strongly correlated with environmental temperatures (air and substrate), but air temperature had an additional effect on the males' body temperatures after removing the effect of the substrate temperature. Males and females differed significantly in perch height use above ground (males perched higher) but the sexes did not differ in the trunk perimeter used. Gonatodes humeralis tended to use the larger tree trunks available in its environment and selected trunks with deeper leaf litter at the base. It is hypothesized that choosing tree trunks with deeper leaf litter is a defensive behavior against predation. © 2010 Sociedade Brasileira de Zoologia.

Rosa R.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Costa E.A.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Marques R.E.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Oliveira T.S.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | And 6 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2013

St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) is a causative agent of encephalitis in humans in the Western hemisphere. SLEV is a positive-sense RNA virus that belongs to the Flavivirus genus, which includes West Nile encephalitis virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, Dengue virus and other medically important viruses. Recently, we isolated a SLEV strain from the brain of a horse with neurological signs in the countryside of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The SLEV isolation was confirmed by reverse-transcription RT-PCR and sequencing of the E protein gene. Virus identity was also confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence using commercial antibodies against SLEV. To characterize this newly isolated strain in vivo, serial passages in newborn mice were performed and led to hemorrhagic manifestations associated with recruitment of inflammatory cells into the central nervous system of newborns. In summary this is the first isolation of SLEV from a horse with neurological signs in Brazil. © 2013 Rosa et al.

Nicolete R.,University of Sao Paulo | Nicolete R.,Centro Universitario do Maranhao | Santos D.F.D.,University of Sao Paulo | Faccioli L.H.,University of Sao Paulo
International Immunopharmacology | Year: 2011

Biodegradable micro/nanoparticles generated from PLGA have recently attracted attention due to their clinically proven biocompatibility, especially for immunization purposes. These polymeric particulate delivery systems are able to present antigens and activate both humoral and cellular responses. Many studies have discussed the ideal size of these particles in contributing to the generation of the different types of immune response. However, these studies do not demonstrate the effect of micro or nanoparticles, without any encapsulated bioactive, on phagocytic cells after the uptake process. In this context, the aim of this study was to analyze the in vitro inflammatory behavior of J774 murine macrophages after particles' uptake, since nano/microparticles per se can differently activate phagocytic cells, using or not appropriate receptors, inducing distinct inflammatory responses. An o/w emulsion solvent extraction-evaporation method was chosen to prepare the particles. We determined their diameters, zeta potential and morphology. Fluorescent particles' uptake by J774 murine "macrophage-like" cells was also analyzed. To evaluate the in vitro inflammatory profile of these cells after micro or nanoparticles' uptake, we conducted NF-κB translocation assay by confocal microscopy and also determined the pro-inflammatory cytokines production provoked by the particles. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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