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Rodrigues C.M.A.,Centro Universitario do Espirito Santo | Della Lucia C.M.,Federal University of Viçosa | Azeredo R.M.C.,Federal University of Viçosa | Cota A.M.,Federal University of Viçosa | And 2 more authors.
Food Control | Year: 2010

This study aimed to elaborate a set of measures to control vitamin C losses in vegetables prepared at a food service (FS). Vegetables were randomly selected for vitamin C analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after delivery of raw material and during distribution for consumption of the food prepared. Some principles underlying the Hazards Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) were applied to identify the Nutritional Control Points (NCP) for vitamin C losses. A Nutritional Control Measure (NCM) was adopted for each NCP as well as the monitoring criteria. The vegetables were again collected for vitamin C analysis after adoption of the NCMs. The results indicated reduction of vitamin C losses with NCM adoption. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Tiradentes R.V.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | Tiradentes R.V.,Centro Universitario do Espirito Santo | Pires J.G.P.,Centro Universitario do Espirito Santo | Silva N.F.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | And 4 more authors.
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research | Year: 2014

Serotonergic mechanisms have an important function in the central control of circulation. Here, the acute effects of three selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on autonomic and cardiorespiratory variables were measured in rats. Although SSRIs require 2-3 weeks to achieve their full antidepressant effects, it has been shown that they cause an immediate inhibition of 5-HT reuptake. Seventy male Wistar rats were anesthetized with urethane and instrumented to record blood pressure, heart rate, renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), and respiratory frequency. At lower doses, the acute cardiovascular effects of fluoxetine, paroxetine and sertraline administered intravenously were insignificant and variable. At middle and higher doses, a general pattern was observed, with significant reductions in sympathetic nerve activity. At 10 min, fluoxetine (3 and 10 mg/kg) reduced RSNA by -33±4.7 and -31±5.4%, respectively, without changes in blood pressure; 3 and 10 mg/kg paroxetine reduced RSNA by -35±5.4 and -31±5.5%, respectively, with an increase in blood pressure+26.3±2.5; 3 mg/kg sertraline reduced RSNA by -59.4±8.6%, without changes in blood pressure. Sympathoinhibition began 5 min after injection and lasted approximately 30 min. For fluoxetine and sertraline, but not paroxetine, there was a reduction in heart rate that was nearly parallel to the sympathoinhibition. The effect of these drugs on the other variables was insignificant. In conclusion, acute peripheral administration of SSRIs caused early autonomic cardiovascular effects, particularly sympathoinhibition, as measured by RSNA. Although a peripheral action cannot be ruled out, such effects are presumably mostly central.


Devens B.A.,Centro Universitario do Espirito Santo | Viloria M.I.V.,Federal University of Viçosa | De Souzae e Silva C.H.,Federal University of Ouro Preto | Salcedo J.H.P.,Federal University of Viçosa
Ciencia Animal Brasileira | Year: 2014

The Neospora caninum is a protozoan Apicomplexa with greater involvement in abortions worldwide. The economic losses determined by neosporosis also include abortions besides the early disposal of cows, costs for replacing animals in the herd, drop in milk production as well as milk in fat production. The immunological diagnosis involves purchasing costly diagnostic kits on the market. Therefore, the aim of this study was the production of hybridomas secreting polyclonal antibodies with affinity to Neospora caninum (Nc-1 strain) for immunodiagnostic use. For antibodies production, we used sonicated protozoa from Vero cells in culture, purified by filtration. These tachyzoites were employed for immunization of BALB / c mice using saponin as adjuvant, which allowed obtaining polyclonal antibodies capable of revealing fluorescein reaction in indirect immunofluorescence. The fusion of splenic cells, from the immunized mice with myeloma cells SP2 / 0 resulted in 72.4% hybridomas secreting anti-Nc-1antibodies. These hybridomas secreted antibodies positive to N. caninum and negative to Toxoplasma gondii.


PubMed | Federal University of Espirito Santo, University College London and Centro Universitario do Espirito Santo
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Brazilian journal of medical and biological research = Revista brasileira de pesquisas medicas e biologicas | Year: 2014

Serotonergic mechanisms have an important function in the central control of circulation. Here, the acute effects of three selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on autonomic and cardiorespiratory variables were measured in rats. Although SSRIs require 2-3 weeks to achieve their full antidepressant effects, it has been shown that they cause an immediate inhibition of 5-HT reuptake. Seventy male Wistar rats were anesthetized with urethane and instrumented to record blood pressure, heart rate, renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), and respiratory frequency. At lower doses, the acute cardiovascular effects of fluoxetine, paroxetine and sertraline administered intravenously were insignificant and variable. At middle and higher doses, a general pattern was observed, with significant reductions in sympathetic nerve activity. At 10 min, fluoxetine (3 and 10 mg/kg) reduced RSNA by -33 4.7 and -31 5.4%, respectively, without changes in blood pressure; 3 and 10 mg/kg paroxetine reduced RSNA by -35 5.4 and -31 5.5%, respectively, with an increase in blood pressure +26.3 2.5; 3 mg/kg sertraline reduced RSNA by -59.4 8.6%, without changes in blood pressure. Sympathoinhibition began 5 min after injection and lasted approximately 30 min. For fluoxetine and sertraline, but not paroxetine, there was a reduction in heart rate that was nearly parallel to the sympathoinhibition. The effect of these drugs on the other variables was insignificant. In conclusion, acute peripheral administration of SSRIs caused early autonomic cardiovascular effects, particularly sympathoinhibition, as measured by RSNA. Although a peripheral action cannot be ruled out, such effects are presumably mostly central.


Rocha L.D.S.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Rocha L.D.S.,Centro Universitario do Espirito Santo | Falqueto A.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | Santos C.B.D.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Medical Entomology | Year: 2011

Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) is the principal vector of American visceral leishmaniasis. Several studies have indicated that the Lu. longipalpis population structure is complex. It has been suggested that genetic divergence caused by genetic drift, selection, or both may affect the vectorial capacity of Lu. longipalpis. However, it remains unclear whether genetic differences among Lu. longipalpis populations are directly implicated in the transmission features of visceral leishmaniasis. We evaluated the genetic composition and the patterns of genetic differentiation among Lu. longipalpis populations collected from regions with different patterns of transmission of visceral leishmaniasis by analyzing the sequence variation in the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Furthermore, we investigated the temporal distribution of haplotypes and compared our results with those obtained in a previous study. Our data indicate that there are differences in the haplotype composition and that there has been significant differentiation between the analyzed populations. Our results reveal that measures used to control visceral leishmaniasis might have influenced the genetic composition of the vector population. This finding raises important questions concerning the epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis, because these differences in the genetic structures among populations of Lu. longipalpis may have implications with respect to their efficiency as vectors for visceral leishmaniasis. © 2011 Entomological Society of America.


Dos Santos C.B.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | Tavares M.T.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | Leite G.R.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | Ferreira A.L.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Parasitology Research | Year: 2014

We report for the first time the parasitism of eggs of two triatomine Chagas disease vectors, Triatoma infestans and T. vitticeps, by the microhymenopterous parasitoid Aprostocetus asthenogmus. We also describe the first identification of this parasitoid in South America. A. asthenogmus were captured near unparasitized triatomine colonies in the municipality of Vitória, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, and placed into pots with recently laid triatomine eggs. After 24 days, we observed wasps emerging from T. infestans and T. vitticeps eggs. Several characteristics of this parasitoid species suggest that it could be a potential biological control agent of triatomine species. © 2014 Claudiney Biral dos Santos et al.


PubMed | Federal University of Espirito Santo and Centro Universitario do Espirito Santo
Type: | Journal: Journal of parasitology research | Year: 2014

We report for the first time the parasitism of eggs of two triatomine Chagas disease vectors, Triatoma infestans and T. vitticeps, by the microhymenopterous parasitoid Aprostocetus asthenogmus. We also describe the first identification of this parasitoid in South America. A. asthenogmus were captured near unparasitized triatomine colonies in the municipality of Vitria, state of Esprito Santo, Brazil, and placed into pots with recently laid triatomine eggs. After 24 days, we observed wasps emerging from T. infestans and T. vitticeps eggs. Several characteristics of this parasitoid species suggest that it could be a potential biological control agent of triatomine species.


Yee K.M.,Doheny Eye Institute | Yee K.M.,VMR Institute | Ross-Cisneros F.N.,Doheny Eye Institute | Lee J.G.,Doheny Eye Institute | And 11 more authors.
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science | Year: 2012

Purpose. Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) is a biomarker for neuronal stress. Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a mitochondrial disease affecting retinal ganglion cells (RGC). These RGCs and their axons in the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and optic nerve head may show subclinical pathology in unaffected mutation carriers, or undergo cell death in affected patients. We hypothesize that increased levels of blood NSE may characterize LHON carriers as a biomarker of ongoing RGC stress. Methods. Serum was obtained from 74 members of a Brazilian pedigree with LHON carrying the homoplasmic 11778/ND4 mitochondrial DNA mutation. Classified by symptoms and psychophysical metrics, 46/74 patients were unaffected mutation "carriers," 14/74 were "affected," and 14/74 were "off-pedigree" controls. Serum NSE levels were determined by ELISA specific for the γ subunit of NSE. Results. Serum NSE concentrations in carriers (27.17 ± 39.82 μg/L) were significantly higher than affected (5.66 ± 4.19 μg/L; P = 0.050) and off-pedigree controls (6.20 ± 2.35 μg/L; P = 0.047). Of the 14/46 (30.4 %) carriers with significantly elevated NSE levels (mean = 75.8 ± 42.3 μg/L), 9/14 (64.3%) were male. Furthermore, NSE levels were nearly three times greater in asymptomatic male carriers (40.65 ± 51.21 μg/L) than in asymptomatic female carriers (15.85 ± 22.27 μg/L; P= 0.034). Conclusions. Serum NSE levels are higher in LHON carriers compared with affected and off-pedigree individuals. A subgroup of mostly male carriers had significantly elevated serum NSE levels. Thus, male carriers are at higher risk for LHON-related neuronal stress. © 2012 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.


Beltrame R.T.,Centro Universitario do Espirito Santo | Quirino C.R.,State University of Norte Fluminense | Barioni L.G.,Embrapa Informatica Agropecuaria | de Lima V.F.M.H.,São Paulo State University
Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira | Year: 2010

The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the variables number of recipients, synchronization protocol, reproductive efficiency indicators and pregnancy cost, in the economic effectiveness of in vivo and in vitro bovine embryo production. A simulation application was elaborated to allow the user to insert the input variable parameters. A basic scenario, from the efficiency traditional rates of in vivo (ET) and in vitro production (IVP) techniques of bovine embryos, was introduced in the software as a criterion to compare the results. This software was able to reproduce both ET and IVP scenarios. The embryo production was simulated through stochastic simulation. The optimal number of recipients using sensitivity analysis was determined. The net present value and cost per pregnancy were used as a decision parameter. The synchronization for fixed-time embryo transfer decreased the recipient idleness and, consequently, the final cost of pregnancy, in comparison to the traditional methodology. Foetal sexing must be associated to IVP of bovine embryos. In addition, the optimal recipient number per donor is variable and depends on data inserted in the system.


Beltrame R.T.,Centro Universitario do Espirito Santo | Quirino C.R.,State University of Norte Fluminense | Barioni L.G.,Embrapa Informatica | de Lima V.F.M.H.,São Paulo State University
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia | Year: 2013

A simulation model implemented in the programming software Delphi XE® was applied to evaluate sex selection in bovine. The hypothesis under investigation was that a dynamic model with stochastic and deterministic elements could detect the sexed semen technique to minimize pregnancy cost and to determine the adequate number of recipients required for in vivo (ET) and in vitro embryo production (IVP) in the proposed scenarios. Sex selection was compared through semen sexed using flow cytometry (C1) and density gradient centrifugation techniques (C2) in ET and IVP. Sensibility analyses were used to identify the adequate number of recipients for each scenario. This number was reinserted into the model to determine the biological and financial values that maximized ET and IVP using sexed semen (C1M and C2M). New scenarios showed that the density gradient technique minimized pregnancy cost based on the proposed scenarios. In addition, the adequate number of recipients (ET - C1M - 115 and C2M - 105)/(IVP - C1M - 145 and C2M - 140) per donor used was determined to minimize the pregnancy cost in all scenarios. © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia.

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