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de Oliveira C.M.,Federal University of Sao Carlos | de Amarante Junior O.P.,Federal University of Maranhao | Fiorillo C.A.P.,Centro Universitario das Faculdades Metropolitanas Unidas | Colenci P.L.,Federal University of Sao Carlos
Revista Ambiente e Agua | Year: 2016

This work discusses the regulatory standardization among countries that are party to MERCOSUR. This standardization forms the legal and institutional framework for maintaining important and strategic water resources, which require such regulation in order to be preserved and protected for present and future generations. Due to the lack of general legislation relating to MERCOSUR’s water resources, it was necessary to study the main multilateral agreements among the MERCOSUR countries, such as the Amazon Cooperation Treaty and the River Plate Basin Treaty relating to surface water, and also the legal points included in a recent joint statement of the presidents of the Mercosur States regarding the Guarani Aquifer, which is an important resource for current and future generations of the MERCOSUR. The survey was developed using the hermeneutical method, based upon surveys and analysis of international legislation involving MERCOSUR member states, multilateral treaties relating to transboundary waters and groundwater zones and also included a search of bibliographic materials, books, journals, thematic maps, information and documents available on the Internet. The combination of the sparse legal rules covers most legal relationships between MERCOSUR member states relating to water. © 2016, Institute for Environmental Research in Hydrographic Basins (IPABHi). All rights reserved.

Xavier V.B.,Hospital Santa Isabel | Roxo R.S.,Centro Universitario das Faculdades Metropolitanas Unidas
International Urology and Nephrology | Year: 2015

Purpose: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients on long-term dialysis present changes in pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength, negatively influencing physical capacity. Objective: To analyze the impact of a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) protocol on the respiratory capacity of CKD patients under hemodialysis. Methods: A randomized clinical trial was conducted involving 40 CKD patients 19–83 years old divided into two groups: control (n = 20) and CPAP (n = 20). Subjects were assessed on the respiratory muscle function test, maximal respiratory pressures, peak flow and 6-min walk test, at baseline and again at the 2-month follow-up. CPAP group patients were submitted to CPAP protocol (PEEP: 5 cm H2O, flow: 15 L/min, FiO2: 33 %) three times per week during hemodialysis sessions. Results: The CPAP group showed higher forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, peak expiratory flow, maximal inspiratory pressure, peak flow, as well as lower systolic blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate and Borg scale, in addition to a longer distance travelled on the 6-min walk test, compared with the control group. Conclusion: The introduction of a CPAP protocol during hemodialysis sessions had a positive impact on pulmonary function and physical capacity in CKD patients. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Bassani D.C.,Centro Universitario das Faculdades Metropolitanas Unidas | Nunes D.S.,State University of Ponta Grossa | Granato D.,State University of Ponta Grossa
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias | Year: 2014

This study focused on maximizing the extraction of total phenolics and flavonoids as well as the antioxidant activity measured by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay from roasted yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) as a function of time (5, 7.5 and 10 min) and temperature of extraction (60, 75 and 90°C). The data were subjected to Response Surface Methodology and the results showed that polynomial equations were significant, did not present lack of fit, and presented adjusted determination coefficients above 98%, proving their suitability for prediction purposes. Using the desirability function, the optimum operating conditions to obtain a higher extraction of antioxidants was found to be 10 min of extraction at 90°C, and the tea prepared under these experimental conditions presented 427.74 mg of gallic acid equivalents per liter and 80.02% of inhibition of the DPPH radical. The flavonoid content was highly correlated (r = 0.9046, p < 0.001) to the antioxidant capacity.

Borges J.C.S.,Centro Universitario das Faculdades Metropolitanas Unidas | Borges J.C.S.,University of Sao Paulo | Branco P.C.,Centro Universitario das Faculdades Metropolitanas Unidas | Branco P.C.,University of Sao Paulo | And 3 more authors.
Polar Biology | Year: 2010

Because of human actions, biomarkers have become important to detect and mitigate pollution. This study showed that crystalloids can be a biomarker for analyses of low levels of water-soluble fractions of oil (WSF). Antarctic sea urchins (Sterechinus neumayeri) from regions free of pollution were exposed for 2, 5, 10 and 15 days at different levels of WSF (0.4, 0.8 and 1.2 ppm). No significant differences were observed in the phagocytic rates or the germicide capacity for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae; however, there was a significant increase in the quantity of intranuclear iron crystalloids in phagocytic amoebocytes of urchins exposed to higher levels of WSF. This study characterizes histological alterations in crystalloids of S. neumayeri that could be used as a biomarker for oil contaminants, with a simple and inexpensive protocol. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Cruz A.G.,City University of Sao Paulo | Castro W.F.,City University of Sao Paulo | Faria J.A.F.,City University of Sao Paulo | Bogusz S.,City University of Sao Paulo | And 4 more authors.
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2012

The effect of the addition of glucose oxidase as a technological option todecrease the oxidative stress in a stirred yogurt during 15 days of refrigerated storage was investigated. A significant increase in the viable population of Bifidobacteria longum (6.9-8.7 log CFU g -1) was observed in all yogurts added with glucose oxidase and glucose. Additionally, the yogurts containing glucose oxidase and glucose presented and caused higher pH, proteolysis rate, and contents of organic acids and aroma compounds, and this effect was comparable to the control sample (without glucose oxidase and glucose). Overall, the combined effect of the glucose oxidase system was important to reduce the oxygen content during storage of the probiotic yogurt. These findings suggest that glucose oxidase is a potential option to decrease the oxidative stress in probiotic yogurts. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

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