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Ribeirão Preto, Brazil

Da Rocha-Filho P.A.,University of Sao Paulo | Maruno M.,Centro Universitario Barao Of Maua | Ferrari M.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | Fernando Topan J.,University of Sao Paulo
Molecules | Year: 2016

The Brazilian biodiversity offers a multiplicity of raw materials with great potential in cosmetics industry applications. Some vegetable oils and fatty esters increase skin hydration by occlusivity, keeping the skin hydrated and with a shiny appearance. Sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) oil is widely employed in cosmetic emulsions in the form of soaps, creams, moisturizers and skin cleansers due to the presence of polyphenols and its high vitamin E content. Liquid crystals are systems with many applications in both pharmaceutical and cosmetic formulations and are easily detected by microscopy under polarized light due to their birefringence properties. The aim of this research was to develop emulsions from natural sunflower oil for topical uses. Sunflower oil (75.0% w/w) was combined with liquid vaseline (25.0% w/w) employing a natural self-emulsifying base (SEB) derivative. The high temperature of the emulsification process did not influence the antioxidant properties of sunflower oil. Fatty esters were added to cosmetic formulations and extended stability tests were performed to characterize the emulsions. Fatty esters like cetyl palmitate and cetyl ester increase the formation of anisotropic structures. O/W emulsions showed acidic pH values and pseudoplastic behavior. The presence of a lamellar phase was observed after a period of 90 days under different storage conditions. © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI.

Fernandes B.J.D.,University of Sao Paulo | Miranda Silva C.D.,University of Sao Paulo | Andrade J.M.,University of Sao Paulo | Matthes A.D.C.S.,Centro Universitario Barao Of Maua | And 2 more authors.
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology | Year: 2011

Purpose: Adjuvant chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide (CYC) is used for the treatment of breast cancer. CYC is used as a racemic mixture, although preclinical data have demonstrated differences in the efficacy and toxicity of its enantiomers, with (S)-(-)-CYC exhibiting a higher therapeutic index. The present study investigated the enantioselectivity and influence of CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A on the kinetic disposition of CYC in patients with breast cancer. Methods: Fifteen patients previously submitted to removal of the tumor and treated with racemic CYC (900 or 1,000 mg/m 2) and epirubicin were included in the study. The in vivo activity of CYP3A was evaluated using midazolam as a marker drug. Serial blood samples were collected up to 24 h after administration of the first cycle of CYC. Results: The kinetic disposition of CYC was enantioselective in patients with breast cancer, with plasma accumulation of the (S)-(-)-CYC enantiomer (AUC 195.0 vs. 174.8 μg h/mL) due to the preferential clearance of the (R)-(+)CYC enantiomer (5.1 vs. 5.7 L/h). Clearance of either CYC enantiomer did not differ between the CYP2B6, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 genotypes or as a function of the in vivo activity of CYP3A evaluated by midazolam clearance. Conclusions: The pharmacokinetics of CYC is enantioselective in patients with breast cancer concomitantly treated with epirubicin and ondansetron. Genotyping or phenotyping did not contribute to adjustment of the CYC dose regimen in patients included in this study. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Quagliato F.F.,Centro Universitario Barao Of Maua | Netto A.R.,University of Sao Paulo | Forster A.C.,University of Sao Paulo
Saude e Sociedade | Year: 2015

Increase in clientele, relationship between the primary care team and the specialties, health promotion activities, and infrastructure conditions are organizational factors the Family Health Strategy needs to contribute to provide comprehensive care in the Brazilian National Health System. This article aims to compare the results of applying the Questionnaire of Shared Diagnosis in Primary Care (QDCAB), concerning the issues related to comprehensiveness, between typical and expanded Family Health teams in a town in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The method and QDCAB were applied to typical Family Health teams and those having specialists in the major areas (expanded teams), and the analysis was conducted using the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test, enabling comparison of the distribution of answers between the two team models. Expanded teams establish a rather collective bond (0.0026), however, there was no difference in the results of efforts in this regard between the two team models (0.7227). The low marks assigned to issues concerning the relation of the team to the specialists, overall, reveal the difficulties in ensuring comprehensive care. Health promotion activities were assigned high marks from both models. The adequacy of physical structure in the health center was assigned lower marks from the typical teams (< 0.0001). The relation of the teams to the specialists is an obstacle to ensuring comprehensiveness and, regarding typical teams, excessive demand and the infrastructure conditions also pose difficulties. © 2015, UNIV SAOPAULO. All rights reserved.

Barbosa L.H.,Centro Universitario Barao Of Maua | Pinheiro M.H.C.,University of Ribeirao Preto
Work | Year: 2012

The education in Brazil is still strongly based on traditional teaching methods that reinforce a passive attitude of the student. Despite the educational guidelines indicate the need for more liberating and interdisciplinary methodologies, there are few actions for change. Within this context, interdisciplinary appears as an important tool to help the creation of a new thinking in education, proposing the connection between the parts of an area of knowledge. In this way leading the student to develop a more critical and reflective thinking about the reality of the community where he lives. Being understood ergonomics as a scientific discipline that looks for the interactions among humans and other elements of a system in order to optimize human well-being and overall system performance, interdisciplinary has become essential in this process. The aim of this study was to discuss the educational foundations of interdisciplinarity and their applicability in the teaching of ergonomics in the context of Brazil. © 2012 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.

de Oliveira A.S.,University of Sao Paulo | Tercariol C.A.S.,Centro Universitario Barao Of Maua | Genaro G.,University of Sao Paulo
Animals | Year: 2015

The increase of domestic animals kept in shelters highlights the need to ensure animal welfare. Environmental enrichment can improve animal welfare in many ways, such as encouraging captive animals to use all the space available to them. The effects of physical environmental enrichment on the spatial distribution and behavioral repertoire of 35 neutered domestic cats housed communally were analyzed. The provision of boxes in the environment increases the use of available space by the cats. We suggest this improves the cats’ welfare while in communally-housed rescue shelters. The frequencies of active and especially inactive behaviors also increased in the enriched condition. In a test with vertical environmental enrichment, the animals showed an increased length of stay in refuges located at a height of 0.5 m compared to those on the ground (0.0 m). However, the entry frequency was higher in refuges at 0.0 m. Both horizontal and vertical environmental enrichment increased the use of available space, demonstrating that box refuges as enrichment are effective in providing a refuge when at a height, or a place to explore at ground level. We suggest it enhances the welfare of cats in communally housed shelters. This information adds to the body of evidence relating to cat enrichment and can be useful in designing cat housing in veterinary clinics, research laboratories, shelters and domestic homes. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

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