Centro Tecnologico Of La Carne Of Galicia

Ourense, Spain

Centro Tecnologico Of La Carne Of Galicia

Ourense, Spain

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Lorenzo J.M.,Centro Tecnologico Of La Carne Of Galicia | Franco D.,Centro Tecnologico Of La Carne Of Galicia | Carballo J.,University of Vigo
Meat Science | Year: 2014

The effect of the finishing diet on the volatile compounds throughout the manufacture of dry-cured "lacón" (a Spanish traditional meat product), from the Celta pig breed was studied. Thirty-six pigs were separated into three groups according to the type of feeding during the finish-fattening period of three months (concentrate, mixed diet and chestnut). From the pigs of each diet, four batches of dry-cured "lacón" were manufactured. From each batch, samples of fresh meat, meat after salting, after post-salting, and after 14, 28, 56 and 84. days of drying-ripening were taken. Volatiles were extracted by a purge-and-trap method and analyzed by gas chromatographic/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Seventy-six volatile compounds were identified and quantified from dry-cured "lacón" samples in pigs finished with chestnut, eighty-two for concentrate fed pigs and eighty in pigs fed with the mixed diet. The number of identified volatile compounds increased during the manufacturing process; at 84. days of drying-ripening, in the dry-cured "lacón" samples from pigs finished with concentrate, mixed diet and chestnut, 54, 58 and 62 volatile compounds were detected, respectively. The most abundant group of flavour compounds at the end of the manufacturing process was hydrocarbons in the three feeding systems, followed by aldehydes, ketones and alcohols. Discriminant analysis selected six variables (dodecane, butadienol, pentenol, 2-pentenal, decen-3-ona and pyridine-2-methyl) and calculated two discriminating functions which allowed verification of chestnut in the finishing diet. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Lorenzo J.M.,Centro Tecnologico Of La Carne Of Galicia
Meat Science | Year: 2014

The changes in the physico-chemical and textural properties, lipolysis and volatile compounds during the manufacture of dry-cured foal "cecina" were studied. The pH increased during the last stages of processing but gradually declined over the curing period. TBARS values, hardness and chewiness increased with processing time from 0.14, 2.74 and 0.83 to 3.49mgmalonaldehyde/kg, 20.33kg and 5.05kg*mm, respectively. Ripening time also affected the colour parameters: lightness (L*), redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) (P<0.001). The total average content of free fatty acid (FFA) increased significantly from 433.7mg/100g of fat in the raw pieces to 2655.5mg/100g of fat at the end of the drying-ripening stage. The main FFA at the end of the manufacturing process was palmitic acid (C16:0), followed by oleic (C18:1cis9), stearic (C18:0) and linoleic (C18:2n-6). A total of fifty five volatile compounds were identified during the manufacture of dry-cured foal "cecina", including esters, aldehydes, aliphatic hydrocarbons, branched hydrocarbons, alcohols, aromatic hydrocarbons, furans, ketones. Aldehydes reached their maximum level at the end of the post-salting stage. In the final product, esters became the dominant chemical compounds. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Lorenzo J.M.,Centro Tecnologico Of La Carne Of Galicia | Pateiro M.,Centro Tecnologico Of La Carne Of Galicia
Meat Science | Year: 2013

The effect of type of muscle on nutritional characteristic (fatty acid profile, amino acid content, cholesterol and major and minor mineral) of foal meat was investigated. Six muscles: longissimus dorsi (LD), semimembranosus (SM), semitendinosus (ST), biceps femoris (BF), triceps brachii (TB) and psoas major & minor (PM) from twelve foals slaughtered at 15. months from an extensive production system in freedom regimen were extracted for this study. Horse meat is characterized by low fat, low cholesterol content, rich in iron and in vitamin B. Statistical analysis showed that the cholesterol content did not show significant differences (P. >. 0.05) among muscle with mean value range between 0.62 and 0.57. mg/100. g. Most fatty acid presented significant differences (P. <. 0.05) with respect to the type of muscle. The obtained results showed that except for the polyunsaturated linoleic acid, the highest contents of fatty acids were found in the hindquarter muscles. Regarding amino acid profile, significant differences (P. <. 0.05) were observed among muscles and our results indicated that, 100. g of foal meat covered from 80.6 to 86.7% for the daily requirement for an adult man weighing 70. kg for essential amino acids for ST and LD muscles, respectively. Statistical analysis showed significant differences (P = 0.050) for the EAA (essential amino acids) index, which was highest for TB muscle, followed by BF and SM muscles, while the lowest values were reported by ST muscle. Finally, foal meat seems to be a very good nutritional source of major and minor minerals. The higher nutritional value of foal meat will be of great importance in the promotion of this meat. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Gomez M.,Centro Tecnologico Of La Carne Of Galicia | Lorenzo J.M.,Centro Tecnologico Of La Carne Of Galicia
Meat Science | Year: 2013

A traditional Spanish dry-ripened sausage "chorizo" from Celta pig breed was formulated with 10, 20 and 30% of back fat (LF, MF and HF, respectively). An increase in fat content significantly affected the chemical composition of the sausages at the end of ripening (higher fat content and lower protein content and moisture) and physico-chemical parameters (lower pH, aw, hardness, springiness and chewiness and higher TBARS index, L*, a* and b* values). With the increase of fat in the sausage formulation a higher total content of free fatty acids (FFA) was also obtained, showing a greater lipolysis than in LF sausages. All these parameters were significantly affected by ripening time. A lower total content of volatile compounds were found in HF sausages, being detected 3 alcohols, 4 aldehydes, 12 esters, 3 ketones, 7 aliphatic and 4 aromatic hydrocarbons. Sensorial analysis showed differences for fat level and fat-lean cohesiveness within appearance attributes; odour intensity and spices odour within odour attributes and hardness within texture attributes. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Extraction of dry-cured loin volatile compounds by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was optimized. Two different fiber coatings: carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS) and divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS), and three extraction times (15, 30 and 45min) were assayed. Between the fibers tested, CAR/PDMS coated fibers extracted between two and three times more total amount of volatile compounds than the DVD/CAR/PDMS coating (1314×106 vs. 526×106 area units). Fifty five compounds were extracted by the CAR/PDMS fiber, while only 48 of these were found with the DVB/CAR/PDMS fiber. On the other hand, 6 additional volatile compounds were extracted by the CAR/PDMS coating, all of them being of low molecular weight. Three of the major compounds extracted, hexanoic acid, methyl ester; butanoic acid, 3-methyl-, methyl ester and hexanal, were found in high proportion in both fiber coatings. The effect of exposure time was more marked for the DVD/CAR/PDMS fiber than for the CAR/PDMS coating. Fifteen minutes of extraction provided a volatile compounds profile with lower area counts for most compounds and significantly different to that obtained with 30 and 45min of extraction. The extraction yields of dry-cured loin volatile compounds varied according to the fiber coating used and the time of exposure. Therefore, extraction conditions should be selected depending on the objective of the study. Finally, it can be concluded that both porous fibers tested, CAR/PDMS and DVB/CAR/PDMS, provide a similar volatile compounds profile for dry-cured foal loin. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Franco D.,Centro Tecnologico Of La Carne Of Galicia | Lorenzo J.M.,Centro Tecnologico Of La Carne Of Galicia
Meat Science | Year: 2014

The effect of muscle and intensity of finishing diet on meat quality of foals slaughtered at 15. months was study. For this work, a total of twenty one foals and six muscles: longissimus dorsi (LD), semimembranosus (SM), semitendinosus (ST), biceps femoris (BF), triceps brachii (TB) and Psoas major & minor (PM) from two different intensities of finishing diet (1.5 vs. 3. kg/day) were analysed.Meat quality (chemical composition, colour characteristics, and textural traits), fatty and amino acid profile and mineral composition were studied. In general the factor muscle had more effect on all traits measured in this study than finishing effect, especially in the fatty acids and mineral composition. SM muscle showed the highest percentage of protein in both finishing groups (22.34 and 21.74% for 3 and 1.5. kg of commercial feeding, respectively). The intramuscular fat content in the analysed muscles ranged between 0.15% (LD in 1.5 group) and 1.83% (PM in 3.0 group). The highest values of iron heme that were obtained in TB muscle (2.46 mg/100 g meat) are a considerable source of bioavailable iron content.The three most abundant fatty acids in both groups and for all muscles studied were oleic acid, palmitoleic acid and linoleic acid. From a healthy point of view, muscles from foals finishing with a minor amount of commercial fodder were the best. The best nutritional value was reached for PM and ST with 14.73% of total omega 3 and the highest polyunsaturated/saturated ratio (1.10), respectively. Concerning amino acid profile, values of essential/non-essential ratio were significantly higher (P< 0.001) in muscles of 1.5 diet group foals (0.856) than the other group (0.833). Finally, potassium (243 mg/100 g) and phosphorous (202 mg/100 g) were the two main minerals, followed by sodium (54 mg/100 g) and magnesium (26 mg/100 g). © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Lorenzo J.M.,Centro Tecnologico Of La Carne Of Galicia | Gomez M.,Centro Tecnologico Of La Carne Of Galicia
Meat Science | Year: 2012

The objective of this study was to investigate the physico-chemical properties, the microbial counts and the sensory properties' changes of foal steaks packed under various conditions. The experimental packaging systems were: (i) vacuum packaging (VP), (ii) overwrap packaging and (iii) two modified atmosphere packaging methods (MAP): high O 2 MAP (80% O 2+20% CO 2) and low O 2 MAP (30% O 2+70% CO 2). The meat was stored at 2°C during 14days and tested for pH, colour, lipid and protein oxidation, microbial counts and sensory assessment of odour, colour and appearance. Of the two MAP, overwrap and VP, both MAP were the most effective treatments for the inhibition of the total viable counts (TVC), Pseudomonas spp., psychrotrophic aerobic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae as well as moulds and yeast. According to the sensory evaluation, foal steaks packed under overwrap and MAP treatments resulted unacceptable after 7days of storage, whereas the vacuum-packed meat was still acceptable. Moreover, the redness value decreased significantly (P<0.001) with all treatments during the storage time, except for the vacuum packs, which increased significantly (P<0.001). Finally, foal steaks from overwrap packaging and MAP conditions had a greater increase of TBAR'S values and carbonyl content during the storage time. High O 2 levels affected foal meat quality negatively, while anaerobic conditions extended the meat's shelf life up to 14days. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Lorenzo J.M.,Centro Tecnologico Of La Carne Of Galicia | Franco D.,Centro Tecnologico Of La Carne Of Galicia
Meat Science | Year: 2012

The effect of fat content on chemical traits related to dry-curing process (pH, moisture and water activity), color and textural properties and changes of free fatty acids and amino acids compositions during the processing of foal dry-cured sausages were studied. For this purpose, three batches (20 units per batch) of dry fermented sausages with different pork back fat content (5%, 10% and 20%) were manufactured; low fat (LF), medium fat (MF) and high fat (HF), respectively. Samples at 0. days (mix before stuffing), and after 7, 14, 28, 42 and 49. days of ripening were taken.The fat level affected color and textural parameters at the end of the process, showing dry-cured foal sausage with the higher level of fat, the highest values of luminosity and the least hardness. No significant differences (P> 0.05) among batches were detected on total viable counts, lactic acid bacteria and Microccaceae during the process. Regarding lipolysis and lipid oxidation it can be deduced that the increase in the fat level encouraged the production of free fatty acids and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. At the end of the ripening individual free fatty acids followed this order: oleic, palmitic, linoleic and stearic acid, representing 82-95% of the total free fatty acids. Final level of TBARS index was in the worst case of 1.23. mg MDA/kg of sausage. On the contrary, the batch with lesser fat content showed the highest levels of free amino acids at the beginning and at the end of the process, showing final values of 1.6%. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Gomez M.,Centro Tecnologico Of La Carne Of Galicia | Lorenzo J.M.,Centro Tecnologico Of La Carne Of Galicia
Meat Science | Year: 2012

The objective was to determine the shelf life of foal meat (Longissimus dorsi) stored in four different packages: (i) vacuum, (ii) overwrap and (iii) two modified atmospheres (MAP): high O 2 MAP (80% O 2+20% CO 2) and low O 2 MAP (30% O 2+70% CO 2) stored at 2°C during 14days. Shelf life evaluation was based on pH, colour, lipid and protein oxidation, microbial counts and sensory assessment of odour, colour and appearance. Based on aerobic bacterial counts, the shelf life of foal meat samples in overwrap and high O 2 MAP packages would be 10days at most, almost 14days in low O 2 MAP and more than 14days in vacuum packaging. Scores for sensorial evaluation were unacceptable after 10days of storage in samples in overwrap and MAP packs, but they were still acceptable in vacuum ones. Moreover, for all packaging conditions except vacuum, which remained constant, a decrease in redness (a*) and an increase in carbonyl content and TBAR'S values was observed with storage time. High O 2 levels negatively affected foal meat quality, while anaerobic conditions extended shelf life to 14days. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Lorenzo J.M.,Centro Tecnologico Of La Carne Of Galicia
European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology | Year: 2013

The recent horsemeat scandal in EU provides a good opportunity to review some of the benefits of food grade horsemeat. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

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