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Lorenzo J.M.,Centro Tecnologico Of La Carne Of Galicia
Meat Science | Year: 2014

The changes in the physico-chemical and textural properties, lipolysis and volatile compounds during the manufacture of dry-cured foal "cecina" were studied. The pH increased during the last stages of processing but gradually declined over the curing period. TBARS values, hardness and chewiness increased with processing time from 0.14, 2.74 and 0.83 to 3.49mgmalonaldehyde/kg, 20.33kg and 5.05kg*mm, respectively. Ripening time also affected the colour parameters: lightness (L*), redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) (P<0.001). The total average content of free fatty acid (FFA) increased significantly from 433.7mg/100g of fat in the raw pieces to 2655.5mg/100g of fat at the end of the drying-ripening stage. The main FFA at the end of the manufacturing process was palmitic acid (C16:0), followed by oleic (C18:1cis9), stearic (C18:0) and linoleic (C18:2n-6). A total of fifty five volatile compounds were identified during the manufacture of dry-cured foal "cecina", including esters, aldehydes, aliphatic hydrocarbons, branched hydrocarbons, alcohols, aromatic hydrocarbons, furans, ketones. Aldehydes reached their maximum level at the end of the post-salting stage. In the final product, esters became the dominant chemical compounds. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Extraction of dry-cured loin volatile compounds by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was optimized. Two different fiber coatings: carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS) and divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS), and three extraction times (15, 30 and 45min) were assayed. Between the fibers tested, CAR/PDMS coated fibers extracted between two and three times more total amount of volatile compounds than the DVD/CAR/PDMS coating (1314×106 vs. 526×106 area units). Fifty five compounds were extracted by the CAR/PDMS fiber, while only 48 of these were found with the DVB/CAR/PDMS fiber. On the other hand, 6 additional volatile compounds were extracted by the CAR/PDMS coating, all of them being of low molecular weight. Three of the major compounds extracted, hexanoic acid, methyl ester; butanoic acid, 3-methyl-, methyl ester and hexanal, were found in high proportion in both fiber coatings. The effect of exposure time was more marked for the DVD/CAR/PDMS fiber than for the CAR/PDMS coating. Fifteen minutes of extraction provided a volatile compounds profile with lower area counts for most compounds and significantly different to that obtained with 30 and 45min of extraction. The extraction yields of dry-cured loin volatile compounds varied according to the fiber coating used and the time of exposure. Therefore, extraction conditions should be selected depending on the objective of the study. Finally, it can be concluded that both porous fibers tested, CAR/PDMS and DVB/CAR/PDMS, provide a similar volatile compounds profile for dry-cured foal loin. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Lorenzo J.M.,Centro Tecnologico Of La Carne Of Galicia
European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology | Year: 2013

The recent horsemeat scandal in EU provides a good opportunity to review some of the benefits of food grade horsemeat. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Lorenzo J.M.,Centro Tecnologico Of La Carne Of Galicia | Franco D.,Centro Tecnologico Of La Carne Of Galicia | Carballo J.,University of Vigo
Meat Science | Year: 2014

The effect of the finishing diet on the volatile compounds throughout the manufacture of dry-cured "lacón" (a Spanish traditional meat product), from the Celta pig breed was studied. Thirty-six pigs were separated into three groups according to the type of feeding during the finish-fattening period of three months (concentrate, mixed diet and chestnut). From the pigs of each diet, four batches of dry-cured "lacón" were manufactured. From each batch, samples of fresh meat, meat after salting, after post-salting, and after 14, 28, 56 and 84. days of drying-ripening were taken. Volatiles were extracted by a purge-and-trap method and analyzed by gas chromatographic/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Seventy-six volatile compounds were identified and quantified from dry-cured "lacón" samples in pigs finished with chestnut, eighty-two for concentrate fed pigs and eighty in pigs fed with the mixed diet. The number of identified volatile compounds increased during the manufacturing process; at 84. days of drying-ripening, in the dry-cured "lacón" samples from pigs finished with concentrate, mixed diet and chestnut, 54, 58 and 62 volatile compounds were detected, respectively. The most abundant group of flavour compounds at the end of the manufacturing process was hydrocarbons in the three feeding systems, followed by aldehydes, ketones and alcohols. Discriminant analysis selected six variables (dodecane, butadienol, pentenol, 2-pentenal, decen-3-ona and pyridine-2-methyl) and calculated two discriminating functions which allowed verification of chestnut in the finishing diet. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Gomez M.,Centro Tecnologico Of La Carne Of Galicia | Lorenzo J.M.,Centro Tecnologico Of La Carne Of Galicia
Meat Science | Year: 2013

A traditional Spanish dry-ripened sausage "chorizo" from Celta pig breed was formulated with 10, 20 and 30% of back fat (LF, MF and HF, respectively). An increase in fat content significantly affected the chemical composition of the sausages at the end of ripening (higher fat content and lower protein content and moisture) and physico-chemical parameters (lower pH, aw, hardness, springiness and chewiness and higher TBARS index, L*, a* and b* values). With the increase of fat in the sausage formulation a higher total content of free fatty acids (FFA) was also obtained, showing a greater lipolysis than in LF sausages. All these parameters were significantly affected by ripening time. A lower total content of volatile compounds were found in HF sausages, being detected 3 alcohols, 4 aldehydes, 12 esters, 3 ketones, 7 aliphatic and 4 aromatic hydrocarbons. Sensorial analysis showed differences for fat level and fat-lean cohesiveness within appearance attributes; odour intensity and spices odour within odour attributes and hardness within texture attributes. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

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