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Melgar M.J.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Alonso J.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Alonso J.,Centro Tecnologico Agroalimentario Of Lugo Cetal | Garcia M.A.,University of Santiago de Compostela
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2016

Mushrooms do not constitute a significant portion of the human diet, but the consumption of wild and cultivated mushrooms has become increasingly in recent years. Some species accumulate high levels of toxic metals, both in unpolluted and polluted areas. In this study, we examined the accumulation capacity of cadmium in edible mushrooms in relation to certain factors and their possible toxicological implications. Cadmium concentrations were determined by an ICP-MS spectrometer in 238 samples of the fruiting bodies of 28 wild and cultivated growing edible mushrooms species and the underlying soil. The hymenophore (H) and the rest of the fruiting body (RFB) were analysed separately. The highest mean cadmium concentration (mg/kg dry weight) was found in Agaricus macrosporus (52.9 in H and 28.3 in RFB). All mushroom species accumulated cadmium in relation to the underlying soils. There were statistically significant differences between the hymenophore and the rest of the fruiting body (p < 0.001). Cadmium concentrations were compared to data in the literature and to levels set by legislation. It was concluded that consumption of our studied mushrooms is not a toxicological risk as far as cadmium content is concerned, although the species A. macrosporus should not be consumed. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Rey-Crespo F.,Centro Tecnologico Agroalimentario Of Lugo Cetal | Rey-Crespo F.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Lopez-Alonso M.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Miranda M.,University of Santiago de Compostela
Animal | Year: 2014

This study was designed to assess the value of seaweeds from the Galician coast as a source of minerals (especially iodine (I) but also other micro-minerals) in organic dairy cattle. It was conducted in an organic dairy farm in the Lugo province that typically represents the organic milk production in NW Spain. The animal's diet consisted mainly of local forage (at pasture or as hay and silage in the winter) and 5 kg of purchased concentrate/day per animal (representing 23.5% of feed intake). Based on the mineral composition of the diet, the physiological requirements and the EU maximum authorised levels in feed, a supplement composed by Sea Lettuce (Ulva rigida) (as flakes, 80%), Japanese Wireweed (Sargasum muticum) (flakes, 17.5%) and Furbelows (Saccorhiza polyschides) (powder, 2.5%) was formulated to give 100 g/animal per day. Sixteen Holstein Friesian lactating cows were randomly selected and assigned to the control (n=8) and algae-supplemented groups (n=8). Both groups had exactly the same feeding and management with the exception of the algae supplement, which was mixed with the concentrate feed and given to the animals at their morning milking for 10 weeks. Heparinised blood (for plasma analysis) and milk samples were collected at 2-week intervals and analysed for toxic and trace element concentrations by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry or inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. The algae supplement significantly improved the animals' mineral status, particularly I and selenium that were low on the farm. However, the effect of the algae supplement on the molybdenum status in cattle needs further investigation because of its great relevance on copper metabolism in ruminants. The I supply deserves special attention, since this element is at a very high concentration in brown-algae species and it is excreted in the milk proportionally to its concentration in plasma concentrations (mean ± s.e. in the algae-supplemented and control groups were 268±54 and 180±42 μg/l, respectively). © The Animal Consortium 2014. Source

Rey-Crespo F.,Centro Tecnologico Agroalimentario Of Lugo Cetal | Rey-Crespo F.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Miranda M.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Lopez-Alonso M.,University of Santiago de Compostela
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2013

Dietary composition and husbandry practices largely determine essential trace element status and toxic element exposure of livestock, and consequently their concentrations in animal products. This study evaluates the main essential trace (Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, I, Mn, Mo, Ni, Se and Zn) and toxic (As, Cd, Hg and Pb) element concentrations in milk from organic and conventional farms in NW Spain (n=50). Milk samples were acid digested and analyzed by ICP-MS. Essential trace element concentrations in organic milk were significantly lower compared to conventional milk, this was especially evident for elements that are routinely supplemented at high concentrations in the conventional concentrate feed: Cu (41.0 and 68.9. μg/L in organic and conventional milk, respectively), Zn (3326 and 3933. μg/L), I (78 and 265. μg/L) and Se (9.4 and 19.2. μg/L). Toxic metal concentrations in milk were in general very low and no statistically significant differences were observed between organic and conventional milk. In addition, the mineral content of organic milk showed a seasonal pattern, the significantly higher As (65%) and Fe (13%) concentrations found in the winter sampling possibly being related to a higher consumption of concentration feed and soil ingestion when grazing. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Orjales I.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Lopez-Alonso M.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Rodriguez-Bermudez R.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Rey-Crespo F.,University of Santiago de Compostela | And 3 more authors.
Homeopathy | Year: 2016

Organic farming principles promote the use of unconventional therapies as an alternative to chemical substances (which are limited by organic regulations), with homeopathy being the most extensive. Traditionally, Spain has had little faith in homeopathy but its use in organic farming is growing. Fifty-six Spanish organic dairy farmers were interviewed to obtain what we believe to be the first data on the use of homeopathy in organic dairy cattle in Spain. Only 32% of farms use some sort of alternative therapy (16.1% homeopathy, 10.7% phytotherapy and 5.3% using both therapies) and interestingly, a clear geographical pattern showing a higher use towards the East (similar to that in the human population) was observed. The main motivation to use homeopathy was the need to reduce chemical substances promoted by organic regulations, and the treatment of clinical mastitis being the principle reason. The number of total treatments was lower in farms using homeopathy compared with those applying allopathic therapies (0.13 and 0.54 treatments/cow/year respectively) and although the bulk SCC was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in these farms (161,826 and 111,218 cel/ml, respectively) it did not have any negative economical penalty for the farmer and milk quality was not affected complying with the required standards; on the contrary homeopathic therapies seems to be an alternative for reducing antibiotic treatments, allowing farmers to meet the organic farming principles. © 2015 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Source

Alonso J.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Garcia M.A.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Corral M.,Centro Tecnologico Agroalimentario Of Lugo Cetal | Melgar M.J.,University of Santiago de Compostela
Revista de Toxicologia | Year: 2013

Mushrooms can capture the artificial radionuclide 137Cesium and in Spain there are no data on the presence of 137Cs in wild edible mushrooms. The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of 137Cs in the main commercial wild mushroom species in Galicia and assess the influence of various factors on its uptake and its implications in food safety. 54 samples of fungi (9 wild and five cultivated) were collected, being processed and analyzed by gamma spectrometry hyperpure germanium (HPGe). As results, the average concentration of 137Cs in wild mushrooms was 249.2 Bq/kg dry weight (dw), about 24.9 Bq/kg fresh weight (fw). Hydnum repandum was the most accumulator species (1016.4 Bq/kg dw), and the cultivated species showed much lower levels (1.6 Bq/kg dw). 137Cs contamination, probably, has its origin in the Chernobyl accident, although with far lower levels than those of countries close to the disaster site. The accumulation was favored by fungal mycorrhizal ecology, whose mycelium is distributed in contaminated soil horizons; also, genetic factors (species) influenced the uptake. In this study, no sample reached the limit of 600 Bq/kg fw, indicated in the European legislation (about 6000 Bq/kg dw based on fungi, if we consider the usual average of 10% dry weight in these matrices), concluding that there is no health risk associated with the regular consumption of fungal species collected commercial in Galicia. Source

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