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Pomezia, Italy

Trivelloni P.,Centro Sperimentale Volo | Berrettini U.,U.O. di Cardiologia
Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia | Year: 2010

Gravitational (G) stress during aerobatics flights, both military and civilian, can suddenly incapacitate pilots in agile and supermaneuverable aircrafts. High +Gz stress, up to +9Gz, has two different physiological consequences: the first is the drop in head-level blood pressure that is proportional to the G load; the other, slightly delayed, is the blood pooling in the lower part of the body and the abdomen. This blood shift results in a decreased return of venous blood to the heart, decreased cardiac output, and decreased blood pressure, leading to a likely loss of consciousness. The natural countermeasure against the effects of high G stress is the baroreceptor reflex. The human physiological tolerance to the gravito-inertial forces developed in flight operations can be increased by physiological and technological means. © 2010 AIM Publishing Srl. Source

Chirico R.,ENEA | Almaviva S.,ENEA | Colao F.,ENEA | Fiorani L.,ENEA | And 9 more authors.
Sensors (Switzerland) | Year: 2015

A new Raman-based apparatus for proximal detection of energetic materials on people, was developed and tested for the first time. All the optical and optoelectronics components of the apparatus, as well as their optical matching, were carefully chosen and designed to respect international eye-safety regulations. In this way, the apparatus is suitable for civil applications on people in public areas such as airports and metro or railway stations. The acquisition software performs the data analysis in real-time to provide a fast response to the operator. Moreover, it allows for deployment of the apparatus either as a stand alone device or as part of a more sophisticated warning system architecture made up of several sensors. Using polyamide as substrate, the apparatus was able to detect surface densities of ammonium nitrate (AN), 2-methyl-1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNT), 3-nitrooxy-2,2-bis(nitrooxymethyl)propyl] nitrate (PETN) and urea nitrate (UN) in the range of 100-1000 μg/cm2 at a distance of 6.4 m using each time a single laser pulse of 3 mJ/cm2. The limit of detection calculated for AN is 289 μg/cm2. AN and UN provided the highest percentages of true positives (>82% for surface densities of 100-400 μg/cm2 and fingerprints) followed by TNT and PETN (17%-70% for surface densities of 400-1000 μg/cm2 and fingerprints). © 2015, by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source

Berrettini U.,U.O. di Cardiologia | Trivelloni P.,Centro Sperimentale Volo | Patteri G.,U.O. di Cardiologia
Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia | Year: 2010

The ever larger number of individuals who practice breath-hold diving suggests an increased need to understand the potential consequences of these sports activities. In this setting, syncope in hyperbaric environment represents a peculiar condition that goes beyond the common classifications of syncope. The pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie its etiology are complex and involve several reflexes that are triggered in these circumstances. Prevention of syncope in apnea divers requires a deep understanding of its pathophysiological mechanisms with inherent preventive measures on behalf of both cardiologists and sports cardiologists. © 2010 AIM Publishing Srl. Source

Bagnoli F.,Centro Sperimentale Volo | Bernabei M.,Centro Sperimentale Volo | Ciliberto A.,Alenia Aeronautica S.p.A.
Engineering Failure Analysis | Year: 2011

A remarkable number of auxiliary power unit (APU) air intake doors of the C27-J aircrafts consisting in A356-T6 casting aluminium alloy were found prematurely cracked during post-flight inspections. All the cracks were localized in correspondence of the inner side ribs and affected by extroversion. Examination of the fracture surfaces by using electron microscopy revealed the cracks propagated in accordance with a high cycle fatigue mechanism induced by in-service typical loads, such as vibrations and air turbulent flows. The doors were found to be confirmed to the chemical, metallographic and hardness requirements for the selected material. The stress induced by these loads was also locally increased by sub surface shrinkage cavities located in correspondence of the ribs. As a consequence of that, new doors, in terms of design as well as material, have been introduced, thus obtaining the necessary functional improvements. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Chirico R.,ENEA | Almaviva S.,ENEA | Colao F.,ENEA | Fiorani L.,ENEA | And 9 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2014

In the last decades there have been several terroristic attacks with improvised explosive devices (IED) that have raised the need for new instrumentation, for homeland security applications, to obtain a reliable and effective fight against terrorism. Public transportation has been around for about 150 years, but terroristic attacks against buses, trains, subways, etc., is a relatively recent phenomenon [1]. Since 1970, transportation has been an increasingly attractive target for terrorists. Most of the attacks to transport infrastructures take place in countries where public transportation is the primary way to move. Terrorists prefer to execute a smaller-scale attack with certainty of success rather than a complex and demanding operation to cause massive death and destruction. [1]. Many commonly available materials, such as fertilizer, gunpowder, and hydrogen peroxide, can be used as explosives and other materials, such as nails, glass, or metal fragments, can be used to increase the amount of shrapnel propelled by the explosion. The majority of substances that are classified as chemical explosives generally contain oxygen, nitrogen and oxidable elements such as carbon and hydrogen [2]. The most common functional group in military explosives is NO2. That functionality can be attached to oxygen (ONO2) in the nitrate esters (PETN), to carbon (C-NO2) in the nitroarenes (TNT) and nitroalkanes (Nitromethane), and to nitrogen (N-NO2) as in the nitramines (RDX). Some organic peroxides, such as TATP and HMTD, are popular amongst terrorists because they are powerful initiators that can be easily prepared from easily available ingredients. Azides are also powerful primary explosives commonly used as initiators (commercial detonators) in civilian and military operations, therefore they could be potentially used by terrorists as initiators for IEDs. © 2014 SPIE. Source

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