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Micheletti D.,Research and Innovation Center | Dettori M.T.,Italian Agricultural Research Council | Micali S.,Italian Agricultural Research Council | Aramini V.,Italian Agricultural Research Council | And 24 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Peach was domesticated in China more than four millennia ago and from there it spread world-wide. Since the middle of the last century, peach breeding programs have been very dynamic generating hundreds of new commercial varieties, however, in most cases such varieties derive from a limited collection of parental lines (founders). This is one reason for the observed low levels of variability of the commercial gene pool, implying that knowledge of the extent and distribution of genetic variability in peach is critical to allow the choice of adequate parents to confer enhanced productivity, adaptation and quality to improved varieties. With this aim we genotyped 1,580 peach accessions (including a few closely related Prunus species) maintained and phenotyped in five germplasm collections (four European and one Chinese) with the International Peach SNP Consortium 9K SNP peach array. The study of population structure revealed the subdivision of the panel in three main populations, one mainly made up of Occidental varieties from breeding programs (POP1OCB), one of Occidental landraces (POP2OCT) and the third of Oriental accessions (POP3OR). Analysis of linkage disequilibrium (LD) identified differential patterns of genome-wide LD blocks in each of the populations. Phenotypic data for seven monogenic traits were integrated in a genome-wide association study (GWAS). The significantly associated SNPs were always in the regions predicted by linkage analysis, forming haplotypes of markers. These diagnostic haplotypes could be used for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in modern breeding programs. Copyright: © 2015 Micheletti et al.


Cirilli M.,University of Milan | Geuna F.,University of Milan | Babini A.R.,Phytosanitary Service | Bozhkova V.,Bulgarian Fruit Growing Institute | And 17 more authors.
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2016

Sharka, caused by Plum Pox Virus (PPV), is by far the most important infectious disease of peach [P. persica (L.) Batsch] and other Prunus species. The progressive spread of the virus in many important growing areas throughout Europe poses serious issues to the economic sustainability of stone fruit crops, peach in particular. The adoption of internationally agreed-upon rules for diagnostic tests, strain-specific monitoring schemes and spatial-temporal modeling of virus spread, are all essential for a more effective sharka containment. The EU regulations on nursery activity should be modified based on the zone delimitation of PPV presence, limiting open-field production of propagation materials only to virus-free areas. Increasing the efficiency of preventive measures should be augmented by the short-term development of resistant cultivars. Putative sources of resistance/tolerance have been recently identified in peach germplasm, although the majority of novel resistant sources to PPV-M have been found in almond. However, the complexity of introgression from relatedspecies imposes the search for alternative strategies. The use of genetic engineering, particularly RNA interference (RNAi)-based approaches, appears as one of the most promising perspectives to introduce a durable resistance to PPV in peach germplasm, notwithstanding the well-known difficulties of in vitro plant regeneration in this species. In this regard, rootstock transformation to induce RNAi-mediated systemic resistance would avoid the transformation of numerous commercial cultivars, and may alleviate consumer resistance to the use of GM plants. © 2016 Cirilli, Geuna, Babini, Bozhkova, Catalano, Cavagna, Dallot, Decroocq, Dondini, Foschi, Ilardi, Liverani, Mezzetti, Minafra, Pancaldi, Pandolfini, Pascal, Savino, Scorza, Verde and Bassi.


PubMed | Italian Agricultural Research Council, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Research and Innovation Center, CAS Zhengzhou Research Institute and 7 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

Peach was domesticated in China more than four millennia ago and from there it spread world-wide. Since the middle of the last century, peach breeding programs have been very dynamic generating hundreds of new commercial varieties, however, in most cases such varieties derive from a limited collection of parental lines (founders). This is one reason for the observed low levels of variability of the commercial gene pool, implying that knowledge of the extent and distribution of genetic variability in peach is critical to allow the choice of adequate parents to confer enhanced productivity, adaptation and quality to improved varieties. With this aim we genotyped 1,580 peach accessions (including a few closely related Prunus species) maintained and phenotyped in five germplasm collections (four European and one Chinese) with the International Peach SNP Consortium 9K SNP peach array. The study of population structure revealed the subdivision of the panel in three main populations, one mainly made up of Occidental varieties from breeding programs (POP1OCB), one of Occidental landraces (POP2OCT) and the third of Oriental accessions (POP3OR). Analysis of linkage disequilibrium (LD) identified differential patterns of genome-wide LD blocks in each of the populations. Phenotypic data for seven monogenic traits were integrated in a genome-wide association study (GWAS). The significantly associated SNPs were always in the regions predicted by linkage analysis, forming haplotypes of markers. These diagnostic haplotypes could be used for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in modern breeding programs.


Civolani S.,University of Ferrara | Civolani S.,InnovaRicerca S.r.l. Monestirolo | Boselli M.,Servizio Fitosanitario Regione Emilia Romagna | Butturini A.,Servizio Fitosanitario Regione Emilia Romagna | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2015

Aim of the study was to investigate the performance of the new insecticide "spirotetramat" as an alternative solution of "abamectin" for the control of Cacopsylla pyri L. (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in the context of an IPM program in European pear, Pyrus communis L.. Laboratory bioassays for the estimation of LC50 and LC90 of both insecticides were performed using four populations collected in Emilia-Romagna (Italy) orchards where different pest management strategies were used (organic, integrated, and conventional). The same populations were also analyzed for the main insecticide detoxifying activities in nymphs by spectrofluorimetric in vitro assays. The performance of the two insecticides was also tested on field on one population under integrated pest management conditions. The laboratory experiments showed that the LC90 of spirotetramat were lower than the highest field concentration allowed in Europe (172.80 mg AI liter-1) giving reassurance about the efficacy of the product. Concerning the abamectin, the laboratory bioassays did not show strong indications of resistance development of C. pyri populations of Emilia-Romagna. A similarity in enzyme detoxifying activity was observed in both insecticides indicating a general absence of a significant insecticide resistance. The field trial showed a high efficacy (>90 %) of spirotetramat on C. pyri already after 15 d from application, and it was significantly higher from abamectin. Overall, spirotetramat is one more choice for C. pyri control, as well as abamectin in order to minimize the risks of occurrence of insecticide resistance. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved.


Durazzo A.,Instituto Nazionale Of Ricerca Per Gli Alimenti E La Nutrizione | Azzini E.,Instituto Nazionale Of Ricerca Per Gli Alimenti E La Nutrizione | Foddai M.S.,Instituto Nazionale Of Ricerca Per Gli Alimenti E La Nutrizione | Nobili F.,Instituto Nazionale Of Ricerca Per Gli Alimenti E La Nutrizione | And 9 more authors.
International Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2010

In this study, we have explored the relationship between the cultivation method and the concentration of major flavonoid aglycones, hydroxycinnamic acids, carotenoids and the total antioxidant activity of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv Perfectpeel); in addition, we have investigated the bioactivity of polyphenol extracts from tomato. The main polyphenols in extracts were quercetin (33.90 ± 6.31 mg kg-1 and 17.92 ± 1.09 mg kg-1 in conventional and organic extracts), chlorogenic acid (3.52 ± 0.74 mg kg-1 and 2.82 ± 0.92 mg kg-1 in conventional and organic extracts) and caffeic acid (3.61 ± 0.71 mg kg-1 and 3.29 ± 0.33 mg kg-1 in conventional and organic extracts). Although statistical differences were found between organic and conventional extracts in several target compounds, no difference in biological effect was observed using cell models. The observed Trans Epithelial Electrical Resistance values were not significantly different between organic and conventional tomato extracts, but we have observed, in both samples, a decrease in tight-junction permeability at 17 μm of polyphenol concentrations. Antioxidant compounds entering within the cell could exert an antioxidant action, nevertheless at concentrations >17 μm could have a pro-oxidant effect. © 2010 The Authors. International Journal of Food Science and Technology © 2010 Institute of Food Science and Technology.


Bassi D.,University of Milan | Rizzo M.,Centro Ricerche Produzioni Vegetali | Foschi S.,Centrale Sperimentazioni e Servizi
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2010

An apricot breeding programme was started at the University of Bologna (northern Italy) at the beginning of the 1980's and it's now co-led by the University of Milan. The basic goal of the project is to provide the southern Po Valley region with adapted cultivars to be grown in an environment featuring fluctuating temperatures at the end of the winter and the beginning of springtime, often ending in poor yield. Other goals are to obtain apricots of superior eating flavour and overall fruit quality, including appearance and firmness and/or slow ripening. Parents are chosen among germplasm collected from local cultivars (when featuring outstanding fruit flavour or tree hardiness) or from foreign sources, taking advantage of good cooperation with breeding programmes worldwide, aimed at exchanging either pollen or grafting material. One special goal is the resistance to Plum Pox Virus (PPV), as well as to the most common diseases (e.g. brown rot), or to fruit cracking. The project for PPV resistance is run in cooperation with the Italian Universities of Bari and Udine and has brought so far very promising results in terms of several advanced selections and one recently introduced cultivar ('Bora'), all field resistant to the two main PPV strains, D and M. The early ripening 'Ninfa' was the first introduction (1993) and an estimated half a million trees were sold in Italy since then, without mentioning other countries like Greece, Spain and Turkey. Among the more noteworthy recent introductions, in addition to the PPV resistant 'Bora' (large and firm fruit, with nice appearance), 'Petra', 'Pieve' and 'Pieve tardiva' are also to be mentioned because of their outstanding eating quality.


PubMed | Centro Ricerche Produzioni Vegetali, University of Ferrara, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia and Servizio Fitosanitario Regione Emilia Romagna
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of economic entomology | Year: 2015

Aim of the study was to investigate the performance of the new insecticide spirotetramat as an alternative solution of abamectin for the control of Cacopsylla pyri L. (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in the context of an IPM program in European pear, Pyrus communis L.. Laboratory bioassays for the estimation of LC50 and LC90 of both insecticides were performed using four populations collected in Emilia-Romagna (Italy) orchards where different pest management strategies were used (organic, integrated, and conventional). The same populations were also analyzed for the main insecticide detoxifying activities in nymphs by spectrofluorimetric invitro assays. The performance of the two insecticides was also tested on field on one population under integrated pest management conditions. The laboratory experiments showed that the LC90 of spirotetramat were lower than the highest field concentration allowed in Europe (172.80mg AI liter(-1)) giving reassurance about the efficacy of the product. Concerning the abamectin, the laboratory bioassays did not show strong indications of resistance development of C. pyri populations of Emilia-Romagna. A similarity in enzyme detoxifying activity was observed in both insecticides indicating a general absence of a significant insecticide resistance. The field trial showed a high efficacy (>90 %) of spirotetramat on C. pyri already after 15 d from application, and it was significantly higher from abamectin. Overall, spirotetramat is one more choice for C. pyri control, as well as abamectin in order to minimize the risks of occurrence of insecticide resistance.

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