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Tarantino G.,University of Naples Federico II | Tarantino G.,Centro Ricerche Oncologiche Of Mercogliano | Scopacasa F.,University of Naples Federico II | Pasanisi F.,University of Naples Federico II | And 3 more authors.
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity | Year: 2014

The present study shows low circulating levels of SIRT4 in obese patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease mirroring its reduced mitochondrial expression in an attempt to increase the fat oxidative capacity and then the mitochondrial function in liver and in muscle. SIRT4 modulates the metabolism of free fatty acids reducing their high circulating levels but, unfortunately, increasing ROS production. Great concentration of free fatty acids, released by adipose tissue, coupled with oxidative stress, directly results in endothelial dysfunction, early atherosclerosis, and coronary artery disease risk factor. © 2014 Giovanni Tarantino et al. Source

Padula M.C.,University of Basilicata | Martelli G.,University of Basilicata | Tarantino G.,University of Naples Federico II | Tarantino G.,Centro Ricerche Oncologiche Of Mercogliano
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2014

Obesity and its associated diseases are a worldwide epidemic disease. Usual weight loss cures - as diets, physical activity, behavior therapy and pharmacotherapy - have been continuously implemented but still have relatively poor long-term success and mainly scarce adherence. Bariatric surgery is to date the most effective long term treatment for morbid obesity and it has been proven to reduce obesity-related co-morbidities, among them nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and mortality. This article summarizes such variations in gut hormones following the current metabolic surgery procedures. The profile of gut hormonal changes after bariatric surgery represents a strategy for the individuation of the most performing surgical procedures to achieve clinical results. About this topic, experts suggest that the individuation of the crosslink among the gut hormones, microbiome, the obesity and the bariatric surgery could lead to new and more specific therapeutic interventions for severe obesity and its co-morbidities, also non surgical. © 2014 Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Tarantino G.,University of Naples Federico II | Tarantino G.,Centro Ricerche Oncologiche Of Mercogliano
Future Microbiology | Year: 2015

Background: The gut microbiota is modulated by metabolic derangements, such as nutrition overload and obesity. Aim: The aim of this systematic review is to summarize the role of these gut modifiers in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and obesity. Methods: A systematic search of MEDLINE (from 1946), PubMed (from 1946) and EMBASE (from 1949) databases through May 2014 was carried out to identify relevant articles. The search terms were 'probiotic' AND 'NAFLD', 'prebiotic' AND 'NAFLD', 'antibiotic' AND 'NAFLD', 'probiotics' AND 'obesity', 'prebiotic' AND 'obesity' or 'antibiotic' AND 'obesity'; these terms were searched as text word in 'clinical trials' and as exploded medical subject headings where possible. Results: The evidence in the literature is scant, due to the scarcity of appropriately powered, randomized, controlled clinical trials, involving various centers and population of different origin. Conclusion: Although probiotics and prebiotics have been proposed in the treatment and prevention of patients with obesity-related NAFLD, their therapeutic use is not supported by high-quality clinical studies. © 2015 Future Medicine Ltd. Source

Tarantino G.,University of Naples Federico II | Tarantino G.,Centro Ricerche Oncologiche Of Mercogliano
Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation | Year: 2014

When dealing with the treatment of obesity-linked illnesses-in particular nonalcoholic fatty liver disease-beyond diet, various nutritional ingredients are reported to be useful as silymarin, spirulina, choline, folic acid, methionine and vitamin E, all of them showing promising but not definite results. An emerging field of study is represented by prebiotics/probiotics and restoration of normal gut flora, which could play a fundamental role diet and various its components. It is noteworthy to point out that both improving or reducing the severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease bear a positive consequence on evolution of atherosclerosis and its cardiovascular-associated disease, such as coronary artery disease, even though the involved immunologic mechanisms are gaining greater credit in the most recent literature, without excluding the role of nutrition in modulating the acquired immunity in this condition. © 2014 by De Gruyter. Source

Tarantino G.,University of Naples Federico II | Tarantino G.,Centro Ricerche Oncologiche Of Mercogliano | Citro V.,Umberto I Hospital
Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases | Year: 2015

The current Western diet figures centrally in the pathogenesis of several chronic diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and the emerging major health problem nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, all of them negatively impacting on life expectancy. This type of diet is represented by a high calorie uptake, high glycemic load, high fat and meat intake, as well as increased consumption of fructose. On the contrary, a simplified way of eating healthily by excluding highly-processed foods, is presumed to be the Paleolithic diet (a diet based on vegetables, fruits, nuts, roots, meat, organ meats) which improves insulin resistance, ameliorates dyslipidemia, reduces hypertension and may reduce the risk of age-related diseases. The diet is the foundation of the treatment of obesity- and type 2 diabetes-related nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and a diet similar to those of pre-agricultural societies may be an effective option. To lend sufficient credence to this type of diet, well-designed studies are needed. © 2015, Romanian Journal of Gastroenterology. All rights reserved. Source

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