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San Donato Milanese, Italy

Grech G.,University of Malta | Zhan X.,Central South University | Bubnov R.,Ukrainian Academy of Sciences | Hagan S.,Glasgow Caledonian University | And 3 more authors.
EPMA Journal | Year: 2015

At present, a radical shift in cancer treatment is occurring in terms of predictive, preventive, and personalized medicine (PPPM). Individual patients will participate in more aspects of their healthcare. During the development of PPPM, many rapid, specific, and sensitive new methods for earlier detection of cancer will result in more efficient management of the patient and hence a better quality of life. Coordination of the various activities among different healthcare professionals in primary, secondary, and tertiary care requires well-defined competencies, implementation of training and educational programs, sharing of data, and harmonized guidelines. In this position paper, the current knowledge to understand cancer predisposition and risk factors, the cellular biology of cancer, predictive markers and treatment outcome, the improvement in technologies in screening and diagnosis, and provision of better drug development solutions are discussed in the context of a better implementation of personalized medicine. Recognition of the major risk factors for cancer initiation is the key for preventive strategies (EPMA J. 4(1):6, 2013). Of interest, cancer predisposing syndromes in particular the monogenic subtypes that lead to cancer progression are well defined and one should focus on implementation strategies to identify individuals at risk to allow preventive measures and early screening/diagnosis. Implementation of such measures is disturbed by improper use of the data, with breach of data protection as one of the risks to be heavily controlled. Population screening requires in depth cost-benefit analysis to justify healthcare costs, and the parameters screened should provide information that allow an actionable and deliverable solution, for better healthcare provision. © 2015 Grech et al.

Baranyai Z.,Debrecen University | Brucher E.a.,Debrecen University | Uggeri F.,Centro Ricerche Bracco | Maiocchi A.,Centro Ricerche Bracco | And 5 more authors.
Chemistry - A European Journal | Year: 2015

[Gd(DTPA-BMA)] is the principal constituent of Omniscan, a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent. In body fluids, endogenous ions (Zn2+, Cu2+, and Ca2+) may displace the Gd3+. To assess the extent of displacement at equilibrium, the stability constants of DTPA-BMA3- complexes of Gd3+, Ca2+, Zn2+, and Cu2+ have been determined at 37°C in 0.15M NaCl. The order of these stability constants is as follows: GdL≈CuL>ZnL≫CaL. Applying a simplified blood plasma model, the extent of dissociation of Omniscan (0.35mM [Gd(DTPA-BMA)]) was found to be 17% by the formation of Gd(PO4), [Zn(DTPA-BMA)]- (2.4%), [Cu(DTPA-BMA)]- (0.2%), and [Ca(DTPA-BMA)]- (17.7%). By capillary electrophoresis, the formation of [Ca(DTPA-BMA)]- has been detected in human serum spiked with [Gd(DTPA-BMA)] (2.0mM) at pH7.4. Transmetallation reactions between [Gd(DTPA-BMA)] and Cu2+ at 37°C in the presence of citrate, phosphate, and bicarbonate ions occur by dissociation of the complex assisted by the endogenous ligands. At physiological concentrations of citrate, phosphate, and bicarbonate ions, the half-life of dissociation of [Gd(DTPA-BMA)] was calculated to be 9.3h at pH7.4. Considering the rates of distribution and dissociation of [Gd(DTPA-BMA)] in the extracellular space of the body, an open two-compartment model has been developed, which allows prediction of the extent of dissociation of the GdIII complex in body fluids depending on the rate of elimination of the contrast agent. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Canape C.,Centro Ricerche Bracco | Foillard S.,CEA Saclay Nuclear Research Center | Bonafe R.,Centro Ricerche Bracco | Maiocchi A.,Centro Ricerche Bracco | Doris E.,CEA Saclay Nuclear Research Center
RSC Advances | Year: 2015

Functionalized fullerenes and carbon nanotubes were investigated as regards in vitro cytotoxicity and hemolytic properties. Pristine carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were first shortened to make them compatible with cellular dimensions before functional groups were appended to their surface either covalently (e.g. amine, alcohol, carboxylate) or non-covalently (adsorption and polymerization of different polyethylene glycol-based amphiphiles). C60 fullerenes were covalently functionalized with polyethylene glycols of various sizes. Cell viability was measured 24 h after exposure to the nanomaterials using MTT and LDH assays which were adapted to avoid nanomaterial interference. In vitro analysis of hemolytic properties was also performed to assess acute damage to red blood cells. While all the tested nanomaterials were found to reduce, to some extent, the cellular metabolic activity, two only affected the plasma membrane integrity, and none induced hemolysis. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

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