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Ancillotto L.,University of Naples Federico II | Santini L.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Ranc N.,Harvard University | Ranc N.,Centro Ricerca Ed Innovazione | And 3 more authors.
Science of Nature | Year: 2016

Urbanisation and climate change are two global change processes that affect animal distributions, posing critical threats to biodiversity. Due to its versatile ecology and synurbic habits, Kuhl's pipistrelle (Pipistrellus kuhlii) offers a unique opportunity to explore the relative effects of climate change and urbanisation on species distributions. In a climate change scenario, this typically Mediterranean species is expected to expand its range in response to increasing temperatures. We collected 25,132 high-resolution occurrence records from P. kuhlii European range between 1980 and 2013 and modelled the species' distribution with a multi-temporal approach, using three bioclimatic variables and one proxy of urbanisation. Temperature in the coldest quarter of the year was the most important factor predicting the presence of P. kuhlii and showed an increasing trend in the study period; mean annual precipitation and precipitation seasonality were also relevant, but to a lower extent. Although urbanisation increased in recently colonised areas, it had little effect on the species' presence predictability. P. kuhlii expanded its geographical range by about 394 % in the last four decades, a process that can be interpreted as a response to climate change. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Lamichhane S.,University of Aarhus | Yde C.C.,University of Aarhus | Forssten S.,DuPont Company | Ouwehand A.C.,DuPont Company | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

The aim of the present study was to elucidate the impact of polydextrose PDX an soluble fiber, on the human fecal metabolome by high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy-based metabolomics in a dietary intervention study (n = 12). Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed a strong effect of PDX consumption on the fecal metabolome, which could be mainly ascribed to the presence of undigested fiber and oligosaccharides formed from partial degradation of PDX. Our results demonstrate that NMR-based metabolomics is a useful technique for metabolite profiling of feces and for testing compliance to dietary fiber intake in such trials. In addition, novel associations between PDX and the levels of the fecal metabolites acetate and propionate could be identified. The establishment of a correlation between the fecal metabolome and levels of Bifidobacterium (R2 = 0.66) and Bacteroides (R2 = 0.46) demonstrates the potential of NMR-based metabolomics to elucidate metabolic activity of bacteria in the gut. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

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