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Lopez-Ruiz E.,University of Jaén | Peran M.,University of Jaén | Cobo-Molinos J.,University of Jaén | Jimenez G.,University of Granada | And 7 more authors.
Osteoarthritis and Cartilage | Year: 2013

Objective: Infrapatellar fat pad of patients with osteoarthritis (OA) contains multipotent and highly clonogenic adipose-derived stem cells that can be isolated by low invasive methods. Moreover, nuclear and cytoplasmic cellular extracts have been showed to be effective in induction of cell differentiation and reprogramming. The aim of this study was to induce chondrogenic differentiation of autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) obtained from infrapatellar fat pad (IFPSCs) of patients with OA using cellular extracts-based transdifferentiation method. Design: IFPSCs and chondrocytes were isolated and characterized by flow cytometry. IFPSCs were permeabilized with Streptolysin O and then exposed to a cell extract obtained from chondrocytes. Then, IFPSCs were cultured for 2 weeks and chondrogenesis was evaluated by morphologic and ultrastructural observations, immunologic detection, gene expression analysis and growth on 3-D poly (dl-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffolds. Results: After isolation, both chondrocytes and IFPSCs displayed similar expression of MSCs surface makers. Collagen II was highly expressed in chondrocytes and showed a basal expression in IFPSCs. Cells exposed to chondrocyte extracts acquired a characteristic morphological and ultrastructural chondrocyte phenotype that was confirmed by the increased proteoglycan formation and enhanced collagen II immunostaining. Moreover, chondrocyte extracts induced an increase in mRNA expression of chondrogenic genes such as Sox9, L-Sox5, Sox6 and Col2a1. Interestingly, chondrocytes, IFPSCs and transdifferentiated IFPSCs were able to grow, expand and produce extracellular matrix (ECM) on 3D PLGA scaffolds. Conclusions: We demonstrate for the first time that extracts obtained from chondrocytes of osteoarthritic knees promote chondrogenic differentiation of autologous IFPSCs. Moreover, combination of transdifferentiated IFPSCs with biodegradable PLGA 3D scaffolds can serve as an efficient system for the maintenance and maturation of cartilage tissue. These findings suggest its usefulness to repair articular surface in OA. © 2012 Osteoarthritis Research Society International.

Montes R.,University of Granada | Ayllon V.,University of Granada | Gutierrez-Aranda I.,University of Granada | Prat I.,Centro Regional Of Transfusion | And 7 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2011

Infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia harboring the fusion mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL)-AF4 is associated with a dismal prognosis and very brief latency. Our limited understanding of transformation by MLL-AF4 is reflected in murine models, which do not accurately recapitulate the human disease. Human models for MLL-AF4 disease do not exist. Hematopoietic stem or progenitor cells (HSPCs) represent probable targets for transformation. Here, we explored in vitro and in vivo the impact of the enforced expression of MLL-AF4 in human cord blood-derived CD34+ HSPCs. Intrabone marrow transplantation into NOD/SCID-IL2Rγ-/- mice revealed an enhanced multilineage hematopoietic engraftment, efficiency, and homing to other hematopoietic sites on enforced expression of MLL-AF4. Lentiviral transduction of MLL-AF4 into CD34+ HSPCs increased the in vitro clonogenic potential of CD34 + progenitors and promoted their proliferation. Consequently, cell cycle and apoptosis analyses suggest that MLL-AF4 conveys a selective proliferation coupled to a survival advantage, which correlates with changes in the expression of genes involved in apoptosis, sensing DNA damage and DNA repair. However, MLL-AF4 expression was insufficient to initiate leukemogenesis on its own, indicating that either additional hits (or reciprocal AF4-MLL product) may be required to initiate ALL or that cord blood-derived CD34 + HSPCs are not the appropriate cellular target for MLL-AF4-mediated ALL. © 2011 by The American Society of Hematology.

Martinez-Laso J.,Institute Salud Carlos III | Herraiz M.A.,Hospital Clinico Of San Carlos | Vidart J.A.,Hospital Clinico Of San Carlos | Penaloza J.,Hospital Clinico Of San Carlos | And 3 more authors.
Human Immunology | Year: 2011

Generation of the HLA-B*15 group of alleles has been analyzed using exon 1, intron 1, exon 2, intron 2, and exon 3 sequences from human and nonhuman primates. Results indicated that the 230 alleles analyzed could be grouped into 5 different lineages of evolution coming from nonhuman primate MHC-B* alleles sharing characteristic nucleotide sequences. The major evolutionary mechanism of evolution in this group of alleles is the gene conversion event with the exchange of genomic sequences present in other HLA-B*alleles. This evolutionary event reflects the importance of the exchanges between different genomic regions of distinct HLA-A*, -B*, or -C* alleles and only 1 group of HLA-B* alleles (B*15 in the present paper). These data also correlated with the geographic distribution of the lineages postulated and with the corresponding serologic specificities (B62, -63, -71, -72, -75, -76, and -77). In conclusion, the high degree of polymorphism of 1 group of alleles has a specific and simple pathway of evolution, which could result in new insight into the study of immune system functionality, disease association studies, and anthropological studies. © 2011 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics.

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