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Gutierrez J.E.,Federico Santa Maria Technical University | Bejarano A.,Federico Santa Maria Technical University | Fuente J.C.d.l.,Federico Santa Maria Technical University | Fuente J.C.d.l.,Centro Regional Of Estudios En Alimentos Saludables
Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics | Year: 2010

An apparatus based on a static-analytic method assembled in this work was utilized to perform high pressure (vapour + liquid) equilibria measurements with uncertainties estimated at <5%. Complementary isothermal (vapour + liquid) equilibria results are reported for the (CO2 + 1-propanol), (CO2 + 2-methyl-1-propanol), (CO2 + 3-methyl-1-butanol), and (CO2 + 1-pentanol) binary systems at temperatures of (313, 323, and 333) K, and at pressure range of (2 to 12) MPa. For all the (CO2 + alcohol) systems, it was visually monitored to insure that there was no liquid immiscibility at the temperatures and pressures studied. The experimental results were correlated with the Peng-Robinson equation of state using the quadratic mixing rules of van der Waals with two adjustable parameters. The calculated (vapour + liquid) equilibria compositions were found to be in good agreement with the experimental values with deviations for the mol fractions <0.12 and <0.05 for the liquid and vapour phase, respectively. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Vega R.,Pontifical Catholic University of Valparaiso | Vega R.,National Major San Marcos University | Zuniga-Hansen M.E.,Pontifical Catholic University of Valparaiso | Zuniga-Hansen M.E.,Centro Regional Of Estudios En Alimentos Saludables
Food Chemistry | Year: 2015

The effect of processing conditions (temperature and degree of polymerisation, DP) on the stability of short-chain fructooligosaccharides (sc-FOS) was investigated in three reaction media (sodium citrate buffer and orange and tomato juices) in a kinetic study at pH 3.5. In addition, kinetic equations as a function of temperature and pH were developed, using published data. Pentasaccharides were more stable to heat treatment than were trisaccharides under all of the conditions tested. In addition, the sc-FOS were more stable in orange juice, followed by tomato juice and citrate buffer. The results showed that, in addition to temperature and pH, the DP and food matrix, including the type of pasteurisation, must be considered when processing foods enriched with sc-FOS. Furthermore, the continuous thermal processing simulation for each of the equivalent processes at 90 °C revealed that the percent retention of sc-FOS is greater than 95% at temperatures above 95 °C. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Vega R.,Pontifical Catholic University of Valparaiso | Vega R.,National Major San Marcos University | Zuniga-Hansen M.E.,Pontifical Catholic University of Valparaiso | Zuniga-Hansen M.E.,Centro Regional Of Estudios En Alimentos Saludables
Biochemical Engineering Journal | Year: 2014

A kinetic model based on a ping-pong mechanism was developed under the steady-state hypothesis to account for the short-chain fructooligosaccharides (sc-FOS) synthesis using the commercial cellulolytic enzyme preparation, Rohapect CM. This new mechanism takes into account the interactions between the enzyme species and potential substrates (sucrose and sc-FOS) as a single complex reaction, allowing a better understanding of the reaction kinetics.The initial reaction rate laws appropriately describe the kinetic profiles of the examined substrates. Whereas sucrose exhibited Michaelis-Menten behavior with substrate inhibition, 1-kestose and nystose followed Michaelis-Menten and sigmoid enzyme kinetics. In addition, the enzyme was competitively inhibited by glucose and exhibited significant hydrolytic activity in the presence of nystose.The overall model was simultaneously fitted to experimental data from three initial sucrose concentrations (0.5, 1.5 and 2.1. M) using a multi-response regression with kinetic parameters that have biochemical relevance and are independent of the enzyme concentration. According to the model, sucrose acts almost exclusively as a fructosyl donor substrate. The mathematical development described herein is expected to be suitable for modeling similar enzymatic reaction systems. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Araus K.A.,University of Santiago de Chile | Canales R.I.,Federico Santa Maria Technical University | Del Valle J.M.,University of Santiago de Chile | De La Fuente J.C.,Federico Santa Maria Technical University | De La Fuente J.C.,Centro Regional Of Estudios En Alimentos Saludables
Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics | Year: 2011

Modification of an experimental device and methodology improved speed and reproducibility of measurement of solubility of β-carotene in pure and modified SuperCritical (SC) CO 2 at (313 to 333) K. Solubilities of β-carotene in pure CO 2 at (17 to 34) MPa ranged (0.17 to 1.06) lmol/mol and agreed with values reported in literature. The solubility of β-carotene in CO 2 modified with (1.2 to 1.6) % mol ethanol increased by a factor of 1.7 to 3.0 as compared to its solubility in pure CO 2 under equivalent conditions. The concentration of triolein in equilibrated ternary (CO 2 + β-carotene + triolein) mixtures having excess triolein reached values (0.01 to 0.39) mmol/mol corresponding to its solubility in pure SC CO 2 under equivalent conditions. Under these conditions, the solubility of β-carotene in triolein-modified CO 2 increased by a factor of up to 4.0 in relation with its solubility in pure CO 2 at comparable system temperature and pressure, reaching an uppermost value of 3.3 lmol/mol at 333 K and 32 MPa. Unlike in the case of ethanol, where enhancements in solubility where relatively independent on system conditions, solubility enhancements using triolein as co-solvent increased markedly with system pressure, being larger than using (1.2 to 1.6) % mol ethanol at about (24 to 28) MPa, depending on system temperature. The increase in the solubility β-carotene in SC CO 2 as a result of using ethanol or triolein as co-solvent apparently does not depend on the increase in density associated with the dissolution of the co-solvent in CO 2. Enhancements may be due to an increase in the polarizability of SC CO 2, which possibly growths markedly as triolein dissolves in it when the system pressure becomes higher. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Soto C.,Centro Regional Of Estudios En Alimentos Saludables | Soto C.,Pontifical Catholic University of Valparaiso
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2013

Background: Lactobacillus sp. are probiotic microorganisms, and some of them are able to produce conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) via the bio-hydrogenation of linoleic acid (LA). Both CLA and LA are polyunsaturated fatty acids commonly used in the prevention and control of cardiovascular disease, high cholesterol, and cancer, among other ailments. The carbon source is one variable that can affect the growth and characteristics of these bacteria. Molecules called prebiotics are known to benefit human health by stimulating the growth and activity of probiotic bacteria present in the intestinal microflora. The aim of this study was to evaluate how different oligosaccharides affect the growth and fatty acid profile of Lactobacillus plantarum (NRRL - B4496). L. plantarum cultivation was performed in Man-Rogosa-Sharpe (MRS) medium, and the original carbon source (glucose) in this medium was partially or totally replaced by an oligosaccharide (isomalto-oligosaccharide (IMO) or gentiooligosaccharide (GTO)). Then, the biomass concentration and fatty acid profile were determined using spectrophotometry and gas chromatography, respectively. Results: When 50% of the glucose in the MRS medium was replaced with IMO, the maximum growth was 2.6 g/L at 37°C. Under the same culture conditions, the incorporation of GTO only produced 2 g/L of biomass. At 45°C, the growth of the bacterial culture was lower than that observed at 37°C, reaching only 0.4 g/L. When cultivated at 37°C in a mixture of glucose and GTO (1:1), CLA (34%, c9t11) was obtained from cells of L. plantarum. However, when the cultivation was performed at 45°C, CLA was not obtained. When IMO was used, differences in CLA content were not observed between L. plantarum cultivated with glucose or with IMO present; however, vaccenic acid was produced. Conclusions: Lactobacillus plantarum grow well when a mixture of IMO and glucose is used as the carbon source. However, this mixture does not improve the CLA content, most likely due to high enzymatic activity that promotes the conversion of CLA to vaccenic acid. Additionally, GTO is likely less readily metabolized by this strain. Thus, the enzymatic activity is likely lower and less CLA is converted to vaccenic acid, resulting in an accumulation of CLA. Source

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