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Canete R.,Centro Provincial Of Higiene | Guilhem D.,University of Brasilia | Brito K.,Policlinica Samuel Fernandez
Acta Bioethica | Year: 2012

Informed consent constitutes a crucial link in research involving human beings. Nevertheless, knowledge limitations which lead to errors of its process and application have been frequently identified by professionals globally. Hence, a brief review of the topic is exposed about the concept and the elements related to adequate process and application, which we belief will allow to clarify the information that professionals who do research involving human beings posses.

Objective To present the steps followed for the diagnosis and control of an outbreak of the neonatology service of "Vladimir Ilich Lenin" hospital in Holguín province during October and November. The universe of study was 27 newborns who were hospitalized during the length of time of this study; 15 of them were diagnosed as generalized nosocomial sepsis patients. For the study, diagnosis and confirmation of the outbreak, the steps set by the National Program of Prevention and Control of Nosocomial Infections of the Cuban Ministry of Health were followed. Results The outbreak had multifactoral cause. It was confirmed that infection in 11 newborns was caused by Serratia mascescens germ. Three of them died. The rate of acquired generalized sepsis in the epidemic period was 33.3 per 100 admittances, much higher than that of the endemic period six months before, which amounted to 5.6 per 100 admittances. Girls prevailed and the average age was 2-7 days. Conclusions It was proved that the National Program of Prevention and Control is very useful and effective as a working tool in the hospitals and, particularly in the neonatology services where there are high risk of occurrence of outbreak of nosocomial infection causing high infant morbidity and mortality.

Aedes aegypti is the main dengue and hemorrhagic dengue vector and its widespread behavior responds to a number of factors, among them, the climatic ones. to determine the behavior of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes depending on season and weather conditions and how it relates with climatic factors such as temperature and rain. a descriptive seasonal and weather study was made on the basis of data given by the provincial weather center and the surveillance anti-vector fight unit located in Sancti Spiritus province, which covered the 1999-2007 period. of the total number of samples, 86.7% comprised immature phases of the mosquito whereas 13.2% corresponded to mosquitoes at the adult phase; 19.2% of foci were found inside houses and premises but 80.7% outdoors. The highest focal incidence occurred in 2001 (278 foci) and in 2005 (219 foci) whereas the lowest incidence was found in 1999 (14 foci) and in 2003 (32 foci). The municipalities with the highest numbers of foci were Trinidad (302), Sancti Spiritus (242), Cabaiguán (241) and Jatibonico (154) and the lowest figures went to Yaguajay (13) and La Sierpe (6). The number of foci in the rainy season was significant with respect to the dry season (t = 4.09; p = 0.04). There was not high correlation between the number of foci and the recorded temperatures in the course of the study. it was shown that keeping permanent surveillance on Aedes aegypti is extremely important to prevent introduction and spread of this species into the province, mainly in the rainy periods.

the study carried out in Yaguajay, Sancti Spíritus province was aimed at identifying the mollusk species present in the freshwater ecocystems as well as their distribution and abundance in each reservoir. two years--2005 and 2006--were analyzed through 2 samplings per years covering the rainy and the dry season; 20 reservoirs were sampled to determine the present freshwater mollusks. Data were processed by Excelxp and the statistical analysis used SPSS version 8 processor and 4 x 4 contingency tables. ten species were detected in 2005, being Tarebia granifera the most distributed and abundant followed by Marisa cornuarietis. It was observed that the highest amount of mosquitoes was collected in the rainy season during the two years under study in addition to proving that there was significant correlation between the occurrence of mollusk species and fish in the 20 researched reservoirs. Yaguajay municipality exhibits wide freshwater mollusk fauna if one takes into account the 14 identified species of which 4 turned out to be intermediate hosts for fascioliasis, schistosomiasis and angiostrongyliasis. There is close relation between freshwater malacofauna and vegetation.

Noda Albelo A.L.,Hospital Pediatrico Eliseo Noel Caamano | Vidal Tallet L.A.,Hospital Pediatrico Eliseo Noel Caamano | Perez Lastre J.E.,Institute Medicina Tropical Pedro Kouri | Canete Villafranca R.,Centro Provincial Of Higiene
Revista Cubana de Medicina | Year: 2013

The main consequence of persistent replication of the human immunodeficiency virus is the gradual reduction of CD4 positive T lymphocytes, what eventually leads to the loss of immunological competence. The CD4 positive T lymphocytes count by means of flow cytometry is considered an essential part in medical attention and a parameter to identify the disease as well as a useful guide to clinical treatment. Numerous factors, besides the infection by the human immunodeficiency virus, can influence in the CD4 positive T lymphocytes. The changes in this parameter, generated by these factors, do not indicate real modifications in the immunological status of the patient and should be interpreted with caution.

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