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Parel I.,Inail Centro Protesi | Parel I.,University of Trieste | Cutti A.G.,Inail Centro Protesi | Fiumana G.,D Cervesi Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Gait and Posture | Year: 2012

To measure the scapulohumeral rhythm (SHR) in outpatient settings, the motion analysis protocol named ISEO (INAIL Shoulder and Elbow Outpatient protocol) was developed, based on inertial and magnetic sensors. To complete the sensor-to-segment calibration, ISEO requires the involvement of an operator for sensor placement and for positioning the patient's arm in a predefined posture. Since this can affect the measure, this study aimed at quantifying ISEO intra- and inter-operator agreement. Forty subjects were considered, together with two operators, A and B. Three measurement sessions were completed for each subject: two by A and one by B. In each session, the humerus and scapula rotations were measured during sagittal and scapular plane elevation movements. ISEO intra- and inter-operator agreement were assessed by computing, between sessions, the: (1) similarity of the scapulohumeral patterns through the Coefficient of Multiple Correlation (CMC 2), both considering and excluding the difference of the initial value of the scapula rotations between two sessions (inter-session offset); (2) 95% Smallest Detectable Difference (SDD 95) in scapula range of motion.Results for CMC 2 showed that the intra- and inter-operator agreement is acceptable (median≥0.85, lower-whisker ≥0.75) for most of the scapula rotations, independently from the movement and the inter-session offset. The only exception is the agreement for scapula protraction-retraction and for scapula medio-lateral rotation during abduction (inter-operator), which is acceptable only if the inter-session offset is removed. SDD 95 values ranged from 4.4° to 8.6° for the inter-operator and between 4.9° and 8.5° for the intra-operator agreement.In conclusion, ISEO presents a high intra- and inter-operator agreement, particularly with the scapula inter-session offset removed. © 2011 Elsevier B.V..


Barone R.,Biomedical University of Rome | Ciancio A.L.,Biomedical University of Rome | Romeo R.A.,Biomedical University of Rome | Davalli A.,INAIL Centro Protesi | And 3 more authors.
Advances in Mechanical Engineering | Year: 2016

The success of grasping and manipulation tasks of commercial prosthetic hands is mainly related to amputee visual feedback since they are not provided either with tactile sensors or with sophisticated control. As a consequence, slippage and object falls often occur. This article wants to address the specific issue of enhancing grasping and manipulation capabilities of existing prosthetic hands, by changing the control strategy. For this purpose, it proposes a multilevel control based on two distinct levels consisting of (1) a policy search learning algorithm combined with central pattern generators in the higher level and (2) a parallel force/position control managing slippage events in the lower level. The control has been tested on an anthropomorphic robotic hand with prosthetic features (the IH2 hand) equipped with force sensors. Bi-digital and tri-digital grasping tasks with and without slip information have been carried out. The KUKA-LWR has been employed to perturb the grasp stability inducing controlled slip events. The acquired data demonstrate that the proposed control has the potential to adapt to changes in the environment and guarantees grasp stability, by avoiding object fall thanks to prompt slippage event detection. © The Author(s) 2016.


Ciancio A.L.,Biomedical University of Rome | Barone R.,Biomedical University of Rome | Zollo L.,Biomedical University of Rome | Carpino G.,Biomedical University of Rome | And 3 more authors.
Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBS | Year: 2015

The human hand is considered as the highest example of dexterous system capable of interacting with different objects and adapting its manipulation abilities to them. The control of poliarticulated prosthetic hands represents one important research challenge, typically aiming at replicating the manipulation capabilities of the natural hand. For this reason, this paper wants to propose a bio-inspired learning architecture based on parallel force/position control for prosthetic hands, capable of learning cyclic manipulation capabilities. To this purpose, it is focused on the control of a commercial biomechatronic hand (the IH2 hand) including the main features of recent poliarticulated prosthetic hands. The training phase of the hand was carried out in simulation, the parallel force/position control was tested in simulation whereas preliminary tests were performed on the real IH2 hand. The results obtained in simulation and on the real hand provide an important evidence of the applicability of the bio-inspired neural control to real biomechatronic hand with the typical features of a hand prosthesis. © 2015 IEEE.


Noce E.,Biomedical University of Rome | Zollo L.,Biomedical University of Rome | Davalli A.,INAIL Centro Protesi | Sacchetti R.,INAIL Centro Protesi | Guglielmelli E.,Biomedical University of Rome
Proceedings of the IEEE RAS and EMBS International Conference on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics | Year: 2016

In this study, the relationship between the electromyographic (EMG) and neural signals (ENG) recorded during hand control is investigated. EMG and ENG signals are both recorded from an amputee during the ENG control of a hand prosthesis. The EMG signal was processed with standard techniques to compute the envelope. For the neural signal, the processing involved the evaluation of the energy of the recordings with a moving average and the best combination of window width and multiplier for the standard deviation was searched for. Hence, a new curve for the neural signal was generated, gathering information about amplitude and occurrence of action potentials during the motion task. Its correlation with the EMG envelope was studied by means of a parameter purposely conceived, which accounts for the ratio between the areas under the two curves. The proposed approach has been applied to little finger flexion and open hand tasks. Ten movements for each task have been processed for the aim of this study and a comparative analysis with the Pearson coefficient has been carried out. © 2016 IEEE.


Parel I.,Inail Centro Protesi | Parel I.,University of Trieste | Cutti A.G.,Inail Centro Protesi | Cutti A.G.,C O Centro Protesi INAIL | And 4 more authors.
Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing | Year: 2014

Multi-center clinical trials incorporating shoulder kinematics are currently uncommon. The absence of repeatability and limits of agreement (LoA) studies between different centers employing different motion analysis protocols has led to a lack dataset compatibility. Therefore, the aim of this work was to determine the repeatability and LoA between two shoulder kinematic protocols. The first one uses a scapula tracker (ST), the International Society of Biomechanics anatomical frames and an optoelectronic measurement system, and the second uses a spine tracker, the INAIL Shoulder and Elbow Outpatient protocol (ISEO) and an inertial and magnetic measurement system. First within-protocol repeatability for each approach was assessed on a group of 23 healthy subjects and compared with the literature. Then, the between-protocol agreement was evaluated. The within-protocol repeatability was similar for the ST ((Formula presented.)) and ISEO ((Formula presented.)) protocols and comparable with data from published literature. The between-protocol agreement analysis showed comparable scapula medio-lateral rotation measurements for up to 120° of flexion-extension and up to 100° of scapula plane ab-adduction. Scapula protraction-retraction measurements were in agreement for a smaller range of humeral elevation. The results of this study suggest comparable repeatability for the ST and ISEO protocols and between-protocol agreement for two scapula rotations. Different thresholds for repeatability and LoA may be adapted to suit different clinical hypotheses. © 2013 International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering.


Roerdink M.,VU University Amsterdam | Cutti A.G.,INAIL Centro Protesi | Summa A.,INAIL Centro Protesi | Monari D.,INAIL Centro Protesi | And 5 more authors.
Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing | Year: 2014

During walking on an instrumented treadmill with an embedded force platform or grid of pressure sensors, center-of-pressure (COP) trajectories exhibit a characteristic butterfly-like shape, reflecting the medio-lateral and anterior–posterior weight shifts associated with alternating steps. We define “gaitography” as the analysis of such COP trajectories during walking (the “gaitograms”). It is currently unknown, however, if gaitography can be employed to characterize pathological gait, such as lateralized gait impairments. We therefore registered gaitograms for a heterogeneous sample of persons with a trans-femoral and trans-tibial amputation during treadmill walking at a self-selected comfortable speed. We found that gaitograms directly visualize between-person differences in prosthetic gait in terms of step width and the relative duration of prosthetic and non-prosthetic single-support stance phases. We further demonstrated that one should not only focus on the gaitogram’s shape but also on the time evolution along that shape, given that the COP evolves much slower in the single-support phase than in the double-support phase. Finally, commonly used temporal and spatial prosthetic gait characteristics were derived, revealing both individual and systematic differences in prosthetic and non-prosthetic step lengths, step times, swing times, and double-support durations. Because gaitograms can be rapidly collected in an unobtrusive and markerless manner over multiple gait cycles without constraining foot placement, clinical application of gaitography seems both expedient and appealing. Studies examining the repeatability of gaitograms and evaluating gaitography-based gait characteristics against a gold standard with known validity and reliability are required before gaitography can be clinically applied. © 2014, International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering.


Riillo F.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Quitadamo L.R.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Cavrini F.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Cavrini F.,Captiks S.r.l. | And 5 more authors.
IEEE MeMeA 2014 - IEEE International Symposium on Medical Measurements and Applications, Proceedings | Year: 2014

In this study we evaluated the effect of subject-related variables, i.e. hand dominance, gender and experience in using, on the performances of an EMG-based system for virtual upper limb and prosthesis control. The proposed system consists in a low density EMG sensors arrangement, a purpose-built signal-conditioning electronic circuitry and a software able to classify the gestures and to replicate them via avatars. The classification algorithm was optimized in terms of feature extraction and dimensionality reduction. In its optimal configuration, the system allows to accurately discriminate five different hand gestures (accuracy = 88.85 ± 7.19%). Statistical analysis demonstrated no significant difference in classification accuracy related to hand-dominance (handedness) and to gender. In addition, maximum accuracy in dominant hand is achieved since first use of the system, whilst accuracy in classifying gestures of the non-dominant hand significantly increases with experience. These results indicate that this system can be potentially used by every trans-radial upper-limb amputee for virtual/real limb control. © 2014 IEEE.


Riillo F.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Quitadamo L.R.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Cavrini F.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Cavrini F.,Captiks S.r.l. | And 6 more authors.
Biomedical Signal Processing and Control | Year: 2014

We propose a methodological study for the optimization of surface EMG (sEMG)-based hand gesture classification, effective to implement a human-computer interaction device for both healthy subjects and transradial amputees. The widely commonly used unsupervised Principal Component Analysis (PCA) approach was compared to the promising supervised common spatial pattern (CSP) methodology to identify the best classification strategy and the related tuning parameters. A low density array of sEMG sensors was built to record the muscular activity of the forearm and classify five different hand gestures. Twenty healthy subjects were recruited to compute optimized parameters for ("within" analysis) and to compare between ("between" analysis) the two strategies. The system was also tested on a transradial amputee subject, in order to assess the robustness of the optimization in recognizing disabled users' gestures. Results show that RMS-WA/ANN is the best feature vector/classifier pair for the PCA approach (accuracy 88.81 ± 6.58%), whereas M-RMS-WA/ANN is the best pair for the CSP methodology (accuracy of 89.35 ± 6.16%). Statistical analysis on classification results shows no significant differences between the two strategies. Moreover we found out that the optimization computed for healthy subjects was proven to be sufficiently robust to be used on the amputee subject. This motivates further investigation of the proposed methodology on a larger sample of amputees. Our results are useful to boost EMG-based hand gesture recognition and constitute a step toward the definition of an efficient EMG-controlled system for amputees. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | INAIL Centro Protesi
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Gait & posture | Year: 2012

To measure the scapulohumeral rhythm (SHR) in outpatient settings, the motion analysis protocol named ISEO (INAIL Shoulder and Elbow Outpatient protocol) was developed, based on inertial and magnetic sensors. To complete the sensor-to-segment calibration, ISEO requires the involvement of an operator for sensor placement and for positioning the patients arm in a predefined posture. Since this can affect the measure, this study aimed at quantifying ISEO intra- and inter-operator agreement. Forty subjects were considered, together with two operators, A and B. Three measurement sessions were completed for each subject: two by A and one by B. In each session, the humerus and scapula rotations were measured during sagittal and scapular plane elevation movements. ISEO intra- and inter-operator agreement were assessed by computing, between sessions, the: (1) similarity of the scapulohumeral patterns through the Coefficient of Multiple Correlation (CMC(2)), both considering and excluding the difference of the initial value of the scapula rotations between two sessions (inter-session offset); (2) 95% Smallest Detectable Difference (SDD(95)) in scapula range of motion. Results for CMC(2) showed that the intra- and inter-operator agreement is acceptable (median0.85, lower-whisker 0.75) for most of the scapula rotations, independently from the movement and the inter-session offset. The only exception is the agreement for scapula protraction-retraction and for scapula medio-lateral rotation during abduction (inter-operator), which is acceptable only if the inter-session offset is removed. SDD(95) values ranged from 4.4 to 8.6 for the inter-operator and between 4.9 and 8.5 for the intra-operator agreement. In conclusion, ISEO presents a high intra- and inter-operator agreement, particularly with the scapula inter-session offset removed.

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