Centro Of Ricerca Per Le Produzioni Foraggere E Lattiero Casearie

Cremona, Italy

Centro Of Ricerca Per Le Produzioni Foraggere E Lattiero Casearie

Cremona, Italy
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Cecotti R.,Centro Of Ricerca Per Le Produzioni Foraggere E Lattiero Casearie | Bergomi P.,Consiglio per la Ricerca in Agricoltura e lAnalisi dellEconomia Agraria | Carpana E.,Consiglio per la Ricerca in Agricoltura e lAnalisi dellEconomia Agraria | Tava A.,Centro Of Ricerca Per Le Produzioni Foraggere E Lattiero Casearie
Natural Product Communications | Year: 2016

The composition of the volatile fraction of Malva sylvestris var. mauritiana (L.) Boiss. (Malvaceae) was investigated. This plant species was cultivated in the southeastern Alps as an ingredient for herbal teas and infusions. Flowers and leaves were collected at the end of the summer season and separately steamdistilled to obtain two volatile oils, the yields of which were 0.019% for leaves and 0.012% for flowers. After GC-FID and GC-MS analyses, the two oils revealed differences in the nature and especially in the proportion of their components, which were aldehydes, alcohols, phenolics, esters, hydrocarbons and acids. Eugenol was the single most abundant compound in the leaves, totalling 46.7% of the total oil, followed by phytol with 34.4%. Flowers showed a predominance of hydrocarbons, among which the anteiso branched-chain saturated hydrocarbon, 3-methyl tricosane, was the most abundant compound, accounting for 14.9% of the total volatiles. Eugenol ranked second with 10.3%, followed by the two linear-chain saturated hydrocarbons pentacosane and tricosane forming 8.2 and 7.7% of the total oil, respectively. The occurrence and the relative abundance of compounds from various chemical classes such as phenolics, hydrocarbons and aromatic aldehydes and alcohols are discussed, together with some of their ecological implications. The obtained volatile oils were than tested against two major honeybee (Apis mellifera) pathogens, namely Paenibacillus larvae and Melissococcus plutonius, the causative agents of the American and the European foulbrood, respectively.

Johnson R.C.,Washington State University | Kisha T.J.,Washington State University | Pecetti L.,Centro Of Ricerca Per Le Produzioni Foraggere E Lattiero Casearie | Romani M.,Centro Of Ricerca Per Le Produzioni Foraggere E Lattiero Casearie | Richter P.,Southern Oregon University
Crop Science | Year: 2011

Supina bluegrass (Poa supina Schrad.) has the potential for expanded use as a turfgrass, yet its characterization with DNA markers is limited. Our objectives were to characterize amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) variation and determine correlations with climatic variables on in situ leaf collections from 46 locations across the Italian Alps. Using the STRUCTURE program, marker data differentiated the collections into three genetic groups. The groups were verified with analysis of molecular variance and analysis of variance on principal coordinate (PCO) scores (P < 0.01). For PCO analysis, the first three dimensions (Dims) explained 12, 6, and 5% of the total collection-location variation, respectively, and Dim 1 strongly distinguished the three STRUCTURE groups. Correlations of Dim 1 and 2 scores with collection-location temperature and precipitation variables were often significant over STRUCTURE groups but generally not within groups (P < 0.05). However, Dim 3 correlations with climatic variables were frequent both within and across STRUCTURE groups, suggesting a more fundamental association. The correlations of PCOs with climate could result from incidental genomic differences and/or from linkage of plant traits with markers that covaried with climate. The results showed considerable marker variation for supina bluegrass across different climatic areas in the Italian Alps, suggesting that phenotypic variation for agronomic and turf traits is also likely. © Crop Science Society of America.

Fusani P.,Unita di ricerca per il Monitoraggio e la Pianificazione Forestale | Tava A.,Centro Of Ricerca Per Le Produzioni Foraggere E Lattiero Casearie | Vitalini S.,University of Milan | Aiello N.,Unita di ricerca per il Monitoraggio e la Pianificazione Forestale | Scartezzini F.,Unita di ricerca per il Monitoraggio e la Pianificazione Forestale
Journal of Essential Oil Research | Year: 2016

The chemical composition and the antioxidant activity of the volatile fraction of a naturalized population of parsley [Petroselinum crispum (Mill) Nyman] were assessed and compared in a field trial with those of three commercial cultivars. Volatile oils extracted from the leaves were analysed by GC/FID and GC/MS. A total of twenty compounds were detected in all accessions, being the most representatives the terpenes 1,3,8-p-mentathriene and β-phellandrene and the phenylpropanoid myristicin. The naturalized population differed from the cultivars for the highest yield of volatile oil, which was characterized by the absence of apiole, a lower content of myristicin and the highest amount of 1,3,8-p-mentathriene. The antioxidant activity of the essential oil from the evaluated accessions was very low. Due to its essential oil yield and composition, the naturalized population could be taken into consideration for the starting of a breeding programme. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

Piscopo A.,University of Reggio Calabria | Romeo F.V.,Centro Of Ricerca Per Le Produzioni Foraggere E Lattiero Casearie | Poiana M.,University of Reggio Calabria
Rivista Italiana delle Sostanze Grasse | Year: 2011

In the present work the effects of the drying process on variation of the quality parameters of several almond cultivars were evaluated. The samples were collected in a field in the South of Italy and subsequently dried in a laboratory pilot dryer. Wide variations were observed in the free acidity content whereas no significant differences were investigated in percentage lipid amounts. K, Mg and Ca proved the major minerals present in all almond seeds by analysis of minerals and of trace elements. The two-ways statistical analysis revealed a general influence of the genetic characters and the drying process on fatty acids contents in all almond oils. The investigation about these components revealed that Mas Bovera cv kernels were the high quality samples in terms of monounsaturated/polyunsa-turated acids ratio compared to the other varieties. A further study regarding the genetic similarities of almonds before and after treatment was conducted by cluster analysis. Mas Bovera and Glorieta oils were the least affected by the quality decay by heat application.

Crisa A.,Italian Agricultural Research Council | Marchitelli C.,University of Tuscia | Pariset L.,University of Tuscia | Contarini G.,Centro Of Ricerca Per Le Produzioni Foraggere E Lattiero Casearie | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2010

The aim of the present study was to investigate the genetic control of the fatty acid (FA) composition in milk from 3 breeds of sheep: Altamurana, Gentile di Puglia, and Sarda. Single nucleotide polymorphisms within genes, encoding enzymes putatively involved in the synthesis and metabolism of milk fat, were selected for analysis, and the allele substitution effects were determined for 16 genes, which were polymorphic in the 3 sheep breeds, upon the milk fat composition. Four genes (α-1-antichymotrypsin-2; diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase homolog-2; propionyl Coenzyme A carboxylase, β polypeptide; and insulin-like growth factor-I) play a role in the desaturation of stearic FA into polyunsaturated fatty acids. Furthermore, 2 genes (growth hormone receptor and zona pellucida glycoprotein-2) affect the variability of the total fat content in addition to the butyric and stearic FA profile, and the fatty acid synthetase gene has an influence on the medium-chain FA. Milk FA profiles play an important role in dairy sheep farming because they have a large effect on cheese characteristics and also because sheep milk may be marketed as a source of nutraceuticals because it contains higher levels of conjugated linoleic acid than milk from other ruminants. The current study evaluated the global effects of a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes on traits that are not commonly investigated in sheep but that are potentially very useful for improving milk quality. © 2010 American Dairy Science Association.

Mercanti D.J.,CONICET | Carminati D.,Centro Of Ricerca Per Le Produzioni Foraggere E Lattiero Casearie | Reinheimer J.A.,CONICET | Quiberoni A.,CONICET
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2011

Prophages account for most of the genetic diversity among strains of a given bacterial species, and represent a latent source for the generation of virulent phages. In this work, a set of 30 commercial, collection and dairy-isolated Lactobacillus casei group strains were used. A species-specific PCR assay allowed a reclassification, mainly of strains previously considered Lactobacillus casei, into either Lactobacillus paracasei or Lactobacillus rhamnosus. All the strains were induced with mitomycin C, allowing direct recovering of phage DNA in 25 cases, which corroborates the widely occurrence of lysogeny on Lactobacillus genomes, including probiotic strains of Lactobacillus casei group. Ten out of 11 commercial strains studied contained prophages, evidencing the potential risks of their use at industrial scale. Strains were also induced by treatment with different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide but, however, this agent was not able to evidence a prophage release for any of the strains tested. According to a RAPD-PCR fingerprinting with M13, 1254 and G1 primers, most of the commercial strains presented a high degree of homology and, regarding BglII- and BamHI-restriction profiles of phage DNA, six of them harboured the same prophage. Surprisingly, both Lactobacillus paracasei ATCC 27092 and Lactobacillus paracasei ATCC 27139 shared a second prophage with both an INLAIN collection and a commercial Lactobacillus paracasei strains, whereas two collection strains shared a third one. On the other hand, mitomycin C-inducible prophages were detected only on about a half of the strains isolated from dairy products, which had (with only one exception) from moderate to high correlation coefficients according to RAPD-PCR fingerprinting. After induction, supernatants were filtered and tested against nine Lactobacillus strains of the set sensitive to previously assayed virulent phages, allowing isolation of two new virulent phages: fcyrillic i. Lp1308 and fcyrillic i. Lp84. Both phages were able to lyse all but one strains sensitive to previously assayed phage MLC-A. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Pirlo G.,Centro Of Ricerca Per Le Produzioni Foraggere E Lattiero Casearie
Italian Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2012

Twenty-four life cycle assessment studies which estimated the carbon footprint of milk production in countries with modern dairy farming were examined. It proved difficult to compare the studies because of the strong discrepancies between them. The aim of this review was to examine the characteristics of LCA studies on milk production in order to understand how the variability of results can be explained. The main reason is the different methodologies adopted. However, other variables were considered: production system, stocking rate, milk productivity, mitigation strategies. Life Cycle Assessment is a promising tool for benchmarking carbon footprint among different countries or production systems. This approach could also be used as a mitigation indicator in the enforcement of political decision. Two major factors are needed for a practical application: i) a widely accepted methodology and ii) direct measurements of greenhouse gases in specific contests.© G. Pirlo, 2012.

Cardamone L.,CONICET | Quiberoni A.,CONICET | Mercanti D.J.,CONICET | Fornasari M.E.,Centro Of Ricerca Per Le Produzioni Foraggere E Lattiero Casearie | And 2 more authors.
Dairy Science and Technology | Year: 2011

Some species of Leuconostoc are very important for fermented dairy products, as they contribute to the organoleptic characteristics of butter and cream, and also contribute to the formation of openings in some soft, semi-hard (Edam and Gouda cheeses), many artisanal or in blue-veined cheeses, such as Roquefort. In this study, 14 Leuconostoc strains isolated from cheese and cheese-related products were characterized by genotypic and phenotypic methods, and their technological performance assessed for their potential use as dairy adjunct starters. Phenotypic characterization allowed these strains to be classified to genus level, and genotypic studies (RAPD-PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing) identified them to species/ subspecies level. Five Leuconostoc strains grew well and acidified milk, and most of them grew even at 8 °C. They showed moderate resistance to heat treatments (30 min t 63 °C) and grew well in the presence of 3% and 4% NaCl, and were significantly inhibited at pH ≤ 5. All strains showed resistance against the bacteriophages tested. In general, the antibacterial properties observed were slight and due to acid production, with the exception of Leuconostoc citreum MB1, which strongly inhibited Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 15313 by the production of a bacteriocin-like compound. All Leuconostoc strains studied were susceptible to gentamicin, tetracycline, erythromycin and ampicillin. Some strains also showed interesting technological and antimicrobial properties, thus being potentially appropriate as adjunct starters in fermented dairy products. This study highlights that adventitious lactic acid bacteria can be a great source of novel strains with interesting technological features that could be used for fermented dairy foods. © INRA and Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011.

Chauhan R.S.,Hemwati Nandan Bahuguna Garhwal University | Nautiyal M.C.,Hemwati Nandan Bahuguna Garhwal University | Cecotti R.,Centro Of Ricerca Per Le Produzioni Foraggere E Lattiero Casearie | Mella M.,University of Pavia | Tava A.,Centro Of Ricerca Per Le Produzioni Foraggere E Lattiero Casearie
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2016

Angelica archangelica L. (Apiaceae) is one of the important perennial medicinal and aromatic plant, distributed in mid hill region of Europe and Asia. The essential oil composition of the rhizomes of Angelica archangelica from three different altitudes of Western Himalaya was investigated. Essential oils were predominantly composed of dillapiole and nothoapiole quantified by GC and identified based on their GC/MS spectra and NMR data. Composition of the essential oil varied greatly with altitude of collection as well as previous studies. Dillapiole was quantified between 35.–91.5% of the total essential oil, while nothoapiole was quantified between 0.1–62.8% of the total essential oil, which is not reported so far. Such great variations in the composition of the essential oil may be attributed to existence of chemotype and adaptation of the species to particular habitat. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Capra M.L.,CONICET | Mercanti D.J.,CONICET | Rossetti L.C.,Centro Of Ricerca Per Le Produzioni Foraggere E Lattiero Casearie | Reinheimer J.A.,CONICET | Quiberoni A.,CONICET
Journal of Applied Microbiology | Year: 2011

Aims: To isolate and characterize bacterial strains derived from Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus paracasei strains and resistant to phage MLC-A. Methods and Results: Two of nine assayed strains rendered resistant mutants with recovery efficiencies of 83% (Lact. paracasei ATCC 27092) and 100% (Lact. casei ATCC 27139). DNA similarity coefficients (RAPD-PCR) confirmed that no significant genetic changes occurred while obtaining resistant mutants. Neither parent nor mutant strains spontaneously released phages. Phage-resistant mutants were tested against phages PL-1, J-1, A2 and MLC-A8. Lactobacillus casei ATCC 27092 mutants showed, overall, lower phage resistance than Lact. paracasei ATCC 27092 ones, but still higher than that of the parent strain. Lactobacillus paracasei ATCC 27092 mutants moderately adsorbed phage MLC-A only in calcium presence, although their parent strain successfully did it with or without calcium. Adsorption rates for Lact. casei ATCC 27139 and its mutants were highly influenced by calcium. Again, phage adsorption was higher on the original strain. Conclusions: Several isolates derived from two Lact. casei and Lact. paracasei strains showed resistance to phage MLC-A but also to other Lact. casei and Lact. paracasei phages. Significance and Impact of the Study: This study highlights isolation of spontaneous bacteriophage-resistant mutants from Lact. casei and Lact. paracasei as a good choice for use in industrial rotation schemes. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

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