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Giraldo C.,Centro Para La Investigacion En Sistemas Sostenibles Of Produccion Agropecuaria Cipav | Escobar F.,Institute Ecologia | Chara J.D.,Centro Para La Investigacion En Sistemas Sostenibles Of Produccion Agropecuaria Cipav | Calle Z.,Centro Para La Investigacion En Sistemas Sostenibles Of Produccion Agropecuaria Cipav
Insect Conservation and Diversity | Year: 2011

Conventional cattle ranching with low plant diversity and a high dependence on chemical fertilisers and herbicides, simplifies ecosystems and negatively affects their functioning. In tropical regions, the cattle ranching systems that use fodder trees and shrubs along with grasses offer a useful landscape management tool that may contribute to the conservation of biodiversity and the stability of ecological processes. Given the functional importance of dung beetles in natural and anthropogenic ecosystems, this study evaluates the recovery of some of the ecological services in which these insects play a role by comparing treeless improved pastures (IP) with those that have been converted into silvopastoral systems (SPS: two species of grass, Cynodon plectostachyus and Pannicum maximum, in association with Leucaena leucocephala trees) in a cattle ranching landscape of the Colombian Andes. The results reveal an increment in the abundance of dung beetles in SPS and, as a consequence, an increase in dung, soil and seed removal, as well as a reduction in the number of adult flies and their larvae compared with IP. 4. This suggests that SPS offer suitable refuges for the dung beetle fauna that complement the role of protected forest remnants, riparian forests and live fences in conserving the integrity of key ecological processes in cattle ranching landscapes. © 2010 The Authors. Insect Conservation and Diversity © 2010 The Royal Entomological Society.


Phongphanith S.,Souphanouvong University | Preston T.R.,Centro Para La Investigacion En Sistemas Sostenibles Of Produccion Agropecuaria Cipav
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2016

This study was to evaluate the effect of sweet or bitter cassava foliage, rice distillers’ byproduct and biochar on methane production in an in vitro incubation system with ensiled cassava root as the energy source. The design was a 2*2*2 factorial with 4 replications: rice distillers’ byproduct (RDB) at 0 or 4% of substrate DM, biochar: 0 or 1% of substrate DM and leaves of sweet or bitter cassava at 30% of substrate DM. Urea (3% of ensiled root DM) and sulphur-rich minerals (2% of substrate DM) were included in the fermentation medium. The total substrates equivalent to 12g DM were put in the incubation bottle, followed by 960 ml of buffer solution and 240 ml of rumen fluid “obtained from a cattle immediately after being slaughtered”. The bottles were then filled with carbon dioxide and incubated at 38 °C in a water bath for 24 hours. Methane production was reduced when: leaf meal from bitter rather than sweet cassava was the protein source in an in vitro fermentation of ensiled cassava root; biochar was added to the fermentation medium. © 2016, Fundacion CIPAV. All rights reserved.


Phoneyaphon V.,Souphanouvong University | Preston T.R.,Centro Para La Investigacion En Sistemas Sostenibles Of Produccion Agropecuaria Cipav
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2016

This study was carried out to determine the extent to which protein-enriched cassava root (PECR) could replace ensiled taro foliage as the protein source for recently weaned Moo Lat pigs fed ensiled cassava root as the source of carbohydrate. Sixteen female pigs of local breed (Moo Lat) with average initial live weight of 9.8 kg were allocated to 4 treatments in a completely randomized block design with four replicates. The treatments were levels of PECR at 0, 20, 40 and 60% (DM basis) replacing ensiled Taro foliage in a basal diet of ensiled cassava root. Anaerobic fermentation of cassava root with urea, DAP and yeast (PECR) increased the crude protein from 3 to 14.5% in DM; true protein was increased from 1.5 to 7.8% in DM. Growth rate of the pigs was increased by 16% from 150 to 175 g/day, when PECR replaced one third of the ensiled Taro foliage. With complete substitution of ensiled taro foliage by PECR the growth rate decreased to 128 g/day. DM feed conversion was best (3.47) with 27% of the dietary protein from PECR and poorest (4.21) when PECR was the only protein supplement. © 2016, Fundacion CIPAV. All rights reserved.


Phoneyaphon V.,Souphanouvong UniversityLuang Prabang Province | Preston T.R.,Centro Para La Investigacion En Sistemas Sostenibles Of Produccion Agropecuaria Cipav
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2016

The aim of the study was to determine the effect of three sources of protein (soybean meal, taro foliage (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) silage and cassava foliage silage) on feed intake, digestibility and N retention in Mong Cai pigs fed ensiled cassava root as source of energy. Four male Mong Cai pigs with average live weight of 12 kg were allotted at random to 4 diets within a 4*4 Latin square design. Feed intake, apparent digestibility coefficients of DM and crude protein, and N retention, were higher when the protein supplement was soybean meal compared with ensiled taro foliage, which in turn was better than ensiled cassava foliage or a mixture of ensiled taro and ensiled cassava foliage. © 2016, Fundacion CIPAV. All rights reserved.


Phongphanith S.,Souphanouvong University | Preston T.R.,Centro Para La Investigacion En Sistemas Sostenibles Of Produccion Agropecuaria Cipav
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2016

Twelve local “Yellow” cattle with initial body weight of 80-100kg and 1.5 to 2 years of age were assigned to a feeding trial in a farmer household in Phonexay village, Phieng District, Xayabouly Province. The trial was arranged as a 2*2 factorial with 3 replications. The factors were: Biochar: 0 or 1% of DM intake; and Rice distillers’ byproduct: 0 or 4% of DM intake. The experiment was carried out for 120 days from January to June 2016, with an extra 15 days for adaptation to the pens and diets. The basal diet was ensiled cassava root supplemented with urea at 2% of ensiled root DM, fresh cassava foliage (sweet variety) at 25% of the DM of the basal diet, and rice straw at 1% of live weight. At the end of trial, concentrations of methane and carbon dioxide were determined in eructed gas mixed with air in a closed chamber in which the animals were kept for 20 minutes prior to measurement of the gases. Supplementation of a basal diet of ensiled cassava root - urea and fresh cassava foliage with rice wine by-product (RDB) improved the growth rate of local “Yellow” cattle by 37% and feed conversion by 21%. Improvements due to supplementation with biochar were lower (15 and 15% respectively for live weight gain and feed conversion. The combined effect of RDB and biochar was to increase the live weight gain by 60% (from 300 to 500 g/day). The improvement in feed conversion was 38% (from 11.5 to 7.86). © 2016, Fundacion CIPAV. All rights reserved.


Manivanh N.,Souphanouvong University | Preston T.R.,Centro Para La Investigacion En Sistemas Sostenibles Of Produccion Agropecuaria Cipav
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2016

A growth trial was conducted with 12 local pigs (Moo Lat breed) with average 14.8 kg initial live weight in a randomized complete block design (RCBD), with three replications of four treatments. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of replacing ensiled taro foliage with protein-enriched cassava root in a basal diet of ensiled banana stem. Fermentation of fresh cassava root with yeast, urea and di-ammonium phosphate (DAP) increased the content of true protein in the root from 2.5 to 14.2% in DM. There were positive responses in dry matter (DM) intake, live weight gain, feed conversion ratio, apparent DM digestibility and N retention as the percentage of protein-enriched cassava root in the diet was increased. © 2016, Fundacion CIPAV. All rights reserved.


Silivong P.,Souphanouvong University | Preston T.R.,Centro Para La Investigacion En Sistemas Sostenibles Of Produccion Agropecuaria Cipav
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2016

The objective of the study was to determine the effect of water spinach and biochar on feed intake, digestibility, N retention and growth performance of local goats fed Bauhinia acuminata as basal diet. Ground sun-dried cassava root was included at 5% (as DM) of all the diets to serve as a carrier for the biochar The experiment was arranged as a 2*2 factorial with 3 replications using twelve goats in individual pens (initial body live-weight 12.5kg and 5-6 months of age). Daily live weight gain and feed conversion, apparent digestibility of DM, OM, crude protein, and N retention, were improved by supplements of water spinach and biochar. The higher values of rumen ammonia in goats fed water spinach reflected the greater solubility of the crude protein (CP) in the water spinach compared with that in the basal diet of Bauhinia) This could be the explanation for the better animal response with this supplement. © 2016, Fundacion CIPAV. All rights reserved.


Montoya-Lerma J.,University of Valle | Giraldo-Echeverri C.,Centro Para La Investigacion En Sistemas Sostenibles Of Produccion Agropecuaria Cipav | Armbrecht I.,University of Valle | Farji-Brener A.,CONICET | Calle Z.,Centro Para La Investigacion En Sistemas Sostenibles Of Produccion Agropecuaria Cipav
International Journal of Pest Management | Year: 2012

Leaf-cutting ants, being the principal herbivores and ecosystem engineers in the Neotropics, have been considered to be a keystone species in natural ecosystems and agroecosystems, due to the direct and indirect effects of their plant defoliation activities. This review summarizes current concepts of the biological and ecological importance of leaf-cutting ants. The ants' pest status is briefly assessed from both ecological and evolutionary points of view. A general overview of control measures is provided. Leaf-cutting ants have evolved physical, symbiotic and behavioural mechanisms that allow them to overcome the chemical, biological, mechanical and cultural methods that have been used to manage their populations. Given the highly complex ecology of these ants, simple methods of control should not be expected. Sound management strategies must alternate between, and combine, different methods. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Silivong P.,Souphanouvong University | Preston T.R.,Centro Para La Investigacion En Sistemas Sostenibles Of Produccion Agropecuaria Cipav
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2015

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of water spinach as source of soluble protein, and of biochar as support for biofilms, on methane production in an in vitro incubation system using leaves of Bauhinia acuminata and Azadirachta indica as the substrate. For each source of leaves, the experimental design was a 2*2 factorial arrangement of 4 treatments with four replications. Measurements were made of total gas, percent methane in the gas and DM and N solubilized, at intervals of 6, 12, 18 and 24h. Gas production and percent substrate solubilized were increased by water spinach on both Bauhinia and Bitter Neem. By contrast, water spinach did not affect methane production on Bauhinia but increased it on Bitter Neem. Biochar supplementation had no effect on total gas and methane production. © iForest – Biogeosciences and Forestry.


Silivong P.,Souphanouvong University | Preston T.R.,Centro Para La Investigacion En Sistemas Sostenibles Of Produccion Agropecuaria Cipav
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2015

The aim of the study was to determine the effect of water spinach and biochar on enteric methane emissions, feed intake, digestibility, nitrogen retention and growth performance in local goats fed Bauhinia acuminata and molasses as basal diet. The experiment was arranged as a 2*2 factorial with 4 replications using sixteen goats in individual pens (initial live weight 12.9 kg and 6-7 months of age). Daily live weight gain and feed conversion, and DM digestibility and N retention, were improved by feeding water spinach and by supplementation with biochar. The higher value of rumen ammonia in goats fed water spinach reflected the greater solubility of the crude protein in the water spinach. Supplementation with water spinach led to a reduction in the methane/carbon dioxide ratio in the eructed breath of the goats but this criterion was not affected by biochar. © iForest – Biogeosciences and Forestry.

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