Centro Para La Investigacion En Sistemas Sostenibles Of Produccion Agropecuaria

Cali, Colombia

Centro Para La Investigacion En Sistemas Sostenibles Of Produccion Agropecuaria

Cali, Colombia
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Molina I.C.,National University of Colombia | Angarita E.A.,National University of Colombia | Mayorga O.L.,Colombian Agricultural Research Corporation | Chara J.,Centro Para La Investigacion En Sistemas Sostenibles Of Produccion Agropecuaria | Barahona-Rosales R.,National University of Colombia
Livestock Science | Year: 2016

A rapid growth of the meat production industry is necessary to satisfy increased demand for this commodity, which might have negative impacts on the environment. The objective of this study was to assess enteric methane (CH4) emissions when a forage legume is introduced in the diet of animals consuming a tropical grass. Eight Lucerna heifers, 218±18 kg live weight with an average age of 19±3 months were used in two experiments following a changeover design. The diets evaluated were 100% star grass (Cynodon plectostachyus, S) or 76% star grass plus 24% leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala, S+L). Throughout the experiment, animals were housed in two chambers, in which the diet was offered four times daily. Each chamber had a small wind tunnel, which housed a fan set to a constant speed of extraction. Air samples were obtained every hour during 24 h both inside and outside (ambient) the tunnel. Methane concentration in these samples was determined by gas chromatography. Temperature and relative humidity both inside and outside the tunnel were recorded using a thermo-hygrometer. The S+L diet had greater protein content whereas the S diet had greater content of neutral detergent fiber. Average intake (kg/d) of fresh forage and dry matter (DM) was significantly greater (23.7 and 5.6) for the S+L than for the S diet (18.9 and 4.7), respectively (P<0.05). The maximum recorded temperature and humidity inside the chamber was 35.5 °C and 99%, respectively, but the minimum values were 19.1 °C and 38%, respectively. Methane production (L/kg DMI) was 37.7 for the S+L treatment and 43. 6 for the S treatment. The energy loss in the form of methane emitted was 8.0% for S+L and 9.4% for the star grass based diet (P=0.32). These results suggest that while increasing animal productivity by increasing dry matter intake, the inclusion of leucaena does not increase methane emission per animal, thus significantly decreasing methane emissions per kg of meat or milk produced. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Raineri C.,University of Sao Paulo | Antonelli R.,University of Sao Paulo | Prosdocimi Nunes B.C.,University of Sao Paulo | de Barros C.S.,University of Sao Paulo | And 3 more authors.
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias | Year: 2012

The demand for "welfare friendly" products increases as public conscience and perception on livestock production systems grow. The public and policy-makers demand scientific information for education and to guide decision processes. This paper describes some of the last decade contributions made by scientists on the technical, economical and market areas of farm animal welfare. Articles on animal welfare were compiled on the following themes: 1) consumer behavior, 2) technical and economical viability, 3) public regulation, and 4) private certification policies. Most studies on the economic evaluation of systems that promote animal welfare involved species destined to produce export items, such as eggs, beef and pork. Few studies were found on broilers, dairy cows and fish, and data regarding other species, such as horses, sheep and goats were not found. Scientists understand that farm animal welfare is not only a matter of ethics, but also an essential tool to gain and maintain markets. However, it is unfortunate that little attention is paid to species that are not economically important for exports. Studies that emphasize on more humane ways to raise animals and that provide economic incentives to the producer are needed. An integrated multidisciplinary approach is necessary to highlight the benefits of introducing animal welfare techniques to existing production systems.

Boyero L.,CSIC - Doñana Biological Station | Boyero L.,James Cook University | Pearson R.G.,James Cook University | Dudgeon D.,University of Hong Kong | And 32 more authors.
Ecology | Year: 2011

Most hypotheses explaining the general gradient of higher diversity toward the equator are implicit or explicit about greater species packing in the tropics. However, global patterns of diversity within guilds, including trophic guilds (i.e., groups of organisms that use similar food resources), are poorly known. We explored global diversity patterns of a key trophic guild in stream ecosystems, the detritivore shredders. This was motivated by the fundamental ecological role of shredders as decomposers of leaf litter and by some records pointing to low shredder diversity and abundance in the tropics, which contrasts with diversity patterns of most major taxa for which broad-scale latitudinal patterns haven been examined. Given this evidence, we hypothesized that shredders are more abundant and diverse in temperate than in tropical streams, and that this pattern is related to the higher temperatures and lower availability of high-quality leaf litter in the tropics. Our comprehensive global survey (129 stream sites from 14 regions on six continents) corroborated the expectedlatitudinal pattern and showed that shredder distribution (abundance, diversity and assemblage composition) was explained by a combination of factors, including water temperature (some taxa were restricted to cool waters) and biogeography (some taxa were more diverse in particular biogeographic realms). In contrast to our hypothesis, shredder diversity was unrelated to leaf toughness, but it was inversely related to litter diversity. Our findings markedly contrast with global trends of diversity for most taxa, and with the general rule of higher consumer diversity at higher levels of resource diversity. Moreover, they highlight the emerging role of temperature in understanding global patterns of diversity, which is of great relevance in the face of projected global warming. © 2011 by the Ecological Society of America.

Boyero L.,CSIC - Doñana Biological Station | Boyero L.,James Cook University | Pearson R.G.,James Cook University | Dudgeon D.,University of Hong Kong | And 37 more authors.
Global Ecology and Biogeography | Year: 2012

Aim We tested the hypothesis that shredder detritivores, a key trophic guild in stream ecosystems, are more diverse at higher latitudes, which has important ecological implications in the face of potential biodiversity losses that are expected as a result of climate change. We also explored the dependence of local shredder diversity on the regional species pool across latitudes, and examined the influence of environmental factors on shredder diversity. Location World-wide (156 sites from 17 regions located in all inhabited continents at latitudes ranging from 67°N to 41°S). Methods We used linear regression to examine the latitudinal variation in shredder diversity at different spatial scales: alpha (α), gamma (γ) and beta (β) diversity. We also explored the effect of γ-diversity on α-diversity across latitudes with regression analysis, and the possible influence of local environmental factors on shredder diversity with simple correlations. Results Alpha diversity increased with latitude, while γ- and β-diversity showed no clear latitudinal pattern. Temperate sites showed a linear relationship between γ- and α-diversity; in contrast, tropical sites showed evidence of local species saturation, which may explain why the latitudinal gradient in α-diversity is not accompanied by a gradient in γ-diversity. Alpha diversity was related to several local habitat characteristics, but γ- and β-diversity were not related to any of the environmental factors measured. Main conclusions Our results indicate that global patterns of shredder diversity are complex and depend on spatial scale. However, we can draw several conclusions that have important ecological implications. Alpha diversity is limited at tropical sites by local factors, implying a higher risk of loss of key species or the whole shredder guild (the latter implying the loss of trophic diversity). Even if regional species pools are not particularly species poor in the tropics, colonization from adjacent sites may be limited. Moreover, many shredder species belong to cool-adapted taxa that may be close to their thermal maxima in the tropics, which makes them more vulnerable to climate warming. Our results suggest that tropical streams require specific scientific attention and conservation efforts to prevent loss of shredder biodiversity and serious alteration of ecosystem processes. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Chara-Serna A.M.,Centro Para La Investigacion En Sistemas Sostenibles Of Produccion Agropecuaria | Chara J.D.,Centro Para La Investigacion En Sistemas Sostenibles Of Produccion Agropecuaria | Zuiga M.C.,Centro Para La Investigacion En Sistemas Sostenibles Of Produccion Agropecuaria | Zuiga M.C.,University of Valle | And 2 more authors.
Universitas Scientiarum | Year: 2010

Objective. To determine the trophic structure of the aquatic insect assembly associated to eight streams in the Colombian coffee-growing ecoregion. Materials and methods. Aquatic insects were collected in eight forested streams located in La Vieja river basin. The taxa collected were assigned to dietary groups according to a regional classification based on the gut content analysis of aquatic insects associated to forested streams of the Otún river basin. Results. 2019 individuals belonging to 73 taxa were collected and 60 were classified into dietary groups. The most abundant group was collectors (55%), followed by shredders (31%) and predators (10%). Scrapers represented only 0.05% of the sample and the remaining 3,95% could not be classified due to lack of information. Conclusions. The dominance of collectors and shredders reveals the importance of coarse particulate organic matter (leaf litter) as a food resource for the insect fauna. Similarities between the trophic structure of this community and other communities studied in similar streams, suggest the possibility of a common pattern for Andean streams. This study evidenced the lack of knowledge on trophic ecology of tropical aquatic insects; 50% of the taxa collected did not have this kind of information for the tropics and 20% had no information neither for the tropics nor temperate zones.

Chara-Serna A.M.,Centro Para La Investigacion En Sistemas Sostenibles Of Produccion Agropecuaria | Chara-Serna A.M.,Aereo | Chara J.D.,Centro Para La Investigacion En Sistemas Sostenibles Of Produccion Agropecuaria | Zuniga M.D.C.,Centro Para La Investigacion En Sistemas Sostenibles Of Produccion Agropecuaria | And 4 more authors.
Annales de Limnologie | Year: 2012

Shredders play a major ecological role in temperate streams, but their numerical importance is highly variable within the tropics. Detailed studies on the diets of tropical stream invertebrates are advisable to be able to better describe and understand this variation. Here, we examined the diets of invertebrates collected from the leaf litter of three tropical streams in Colombia, using gut content analysis. Fine and coarse particulate organic matter were the main food resources for invertebrates, which could be divided into four main dietary groups: predators, shredders, specialist collectors and generalist collectors. While the specialist collectors were the most numerically abundant group (54%), shredder biomass accounted for 63% of total invertebrate biomass, suggesting that shredders play a significant ecological role in the study streams. We describe the diets of 12 out of 47 taxa that were previously unknown, which indicates that knowledge about the feeding ecology of tropical stream invertebrates is still incipient. © 2012 EDP Sciences.

Rivera L.F.,Aereo | Armbrecht I.,Aereo | Calle Z.,Centro Para La Investigacion En Sistemas Sostenibles Of Produccion Agropecuaria
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2013

Conventional cattle ranching in Latin America has been based mostly on extensive pasture monocultures planted with minimum tree cover. The current trend towards replacing treeless pastures with silvopastoral systems that include tree and shrub species enhances productivity and provides environmental services within these systems. We studied the ant fauna in cattle farms at La Vieja river basin, Colombia, with the aim of analyzing the relations between tree cover and ant species diversity and composition in different land uses in this cattle-dominated landscape. Monitoring was performed between 2004 and 2007 in 21 plots representing seven contrasting land uses characteristic of this Andean landscape. Ants were sampled with baits (arboreal and ground) and pitfall traps. A total of 68,860 individuals belonging to 227 ant species was recorded. Ant diversity was positively related to the presence of woody vegetation. The largest number of ant species was found in secondary forests followed by improved pastures with trees. Pastures without trees had less than half the number of ant species in pastures with trees. Ant species richness in intensive Leucaena leucocephala (Mimosaceae) silvopastoral systems also surpassed that recorded in treeless pastures. This study provides evidence supporting the conservation value of silvopastoral systems at the landscape level in the Colombian Andes. The conservation of forest fragments in this area is vital, as they provide refuge for a unique regional ant fauna. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Calle Z.,Centro Para La Investigacion En Sistemas Sostenibles Of Produccion Agropecuaria | Henao-Gallego N.,University of Valle | Giraldo C.,Centro Para La Investigacion En Sistemas Sostenibles Of Produccion Agropecuaria | Armbrecht I.,University of Valle
Restoration Ecology | Year: 2013

Landslides and gullies are two common manifestations of land degradation in the densely populated Colombian Andes. In these unstable areas, further mass movements pose a serious threat to local populations and cause off-site environmental damage through sedimentation, pollution, and increased flooding. A novel approach for restoring severely eroded slopes combines the use of stabilization structures made with stalks of Guadua angustifolia Kunth, Poaceae (bamboo), with high-density planting of species that exhibit quick growth and sprouting. This study compared the vegetation and ground-dwelling ant assemblages of 10 pairs of gullies, each pair formed by one enhanced and one untreated or control gully, 6-8years after restoration or abandonment. The restoration treatment had significant effects on the complexity of vegetation. Average values for plant species richness, basal area, stem density, foliage density index, and total vegetation volume were 11.6, 140, 30, 11.5, and 15.6 times larger, respectively, in enhanced than in control gullies. Mirroring the differences in vegetation, average ant species richness was significantly larger (13 vs. 7.6 species per gully), and a higher proportion of ant species nested within enhanced than control gullies (52.5 vs. 30%). While control gullies were dominated by generalist ants such as Ectatomma ruidum and Linepithema angulatum, enhanced gullies had more specialized ground-dwelling species, normally associated with high plant cover and abundant leaf litter such as Octostruma balzani and Heteroponera inca. We conclude that this restoration strategy promotes a fast recovery of vegetation and the ground-dwelling ant fauna in these tropical mountains. © 2013 Society for Ecological Restoration.

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