Entity

Time filter

Source Type


Mascarenas-Osorio I.,Centro Para la Biodiversidad Marina y la Conservacion | Erisman B.,University of California at San Diego | Moxley J.,Duke University | Aburto-Oropeza O.,University of California at San Diego
Zootaxa | Year: 2011

A first checklist of conspicuous reef fishes observed at 15 sites in the vicinity of Bahía de los Ángeles from 2008 to 2010 is presented. A total of 70 species representing 31 families were observed. Species composition was similar to well studied regions in the southern Gulf of California, in that most species had distributions that span the Tropical Eastern Pacific but species endemic to Mexico or the Gulf of California ranked highest in relative abundance, frequency of occurrence, and mean density. Several species with temperate geographic distributions were more abundant and frequent than on reefs in the southern Gulf. Large-bodied, predatory species such as sharks and the Gulf Grouper, Mycteroperca jordani, were rare or absent. Copyright © 2011 - Magnolia Press. Source


Rife A.N.,University of California at San Diego | Erisman B.,University of California at San Diego | Sanchez A.,Centro Para la Biodiversidad Marina y la Conservacion | Aburto-Oropeza O.,University of California at San Diego
Conservation Letters | Year: 2013

In efforts to protect the world's oceans, the Convention on Biological Diversity has moved the goal of establishing marine protected areas (MPAs) to cover 10% of the ocean from 2012 to 2020. This adjustment suggests that the rush to establish MPAs without proper resources does not resolve conservation problems. In fact, such actions may create a false sense of protection that camouflages degradation of marine ecosystems on regional scales. To exemplify this phenomenon, we reviewed MPA efficacy in the Gulf of California, Mexico, where some 23,300 km2 have been decreed as MPAs. With the exception of Cabo Pulmo National Park, MPAs have not met conservation or sustainability goals. We examined MPA budgets and foundations' investment in the region and found that funding for management is not the limiting factor in MPA efficacy, although funding for enforcement may be deficient. We conclude that MPAs have failed because of insufficient no-take zones, lack of enforcement, poor governance, and minimal community involvement. We need a new philosophy to implement MPAs to take advantage of the scientific knowledge and monetary investment that have been generated worldwide and ensure that they complement effective fisheries management outside their borders. ©2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source


Aburto-Oropeza O.,University of California at San Diego | Erisman B.,University of California at San Diego | Galland G.R.,University of California at San Diego | Mascarenas-Osorio I.,Centro Para la Biodiversidad Marina y la Conservacion | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

No-take marine reserves are effective management tools used to restore fish biomass and community structure in areas depleted by overfishing. Cabo Pulmo National Park (CPNP) was created in 1995 and is the only well enforced no-take area in the Gulf of California, Mexico, mostly because of widespread support from the local community. In 1999, four years after the establishment of the reserve, there were no significant differences in fish biomass between CPNP (0.75 t ha -1 on average) and other marine protected areas or open access areas in the Gulf of California. By 2009, total fish biomass at CPNP had increased to 4.24 t ha -1 (absolute biomass increase of 3.49 t ha -1, or 463%), and the biomass of top predators and carnivores increased by 11 and 4 times, respectively. However, fish biomass did not change significantly in other marine protected areas or open access areas over the same time period. The absolute increase in fish biomass at CPNP within a decade is the largest measured in a marine reserve worldwide, and it is likely due to a combination of social (strong community leadership, social cohesion, effective enforcement) and ecological factors. The recovery of fish biomass inside CPNP has resulted in significant economic benefits, indicating that community-managed marine reserves are a viable solution to unsustainable coastal development and fisheries collapse in the Gulf of California and elsewhere. © 2011 Aburto-Oropeza et al. Source


Erisman B.E.,University of California at San Diego | Galland G.R.,University of California at San Diego | Mascarenas I.,Centro Para la Biodiversidad Marina y la Conservacion | Moxley J.,Duke University | And 4 more authors.
Zootaxa | Year: 2011

The first comprehensive list of 318 coastal fish species recorded from the Islas Marías Archipelago Mexico, was compiled from recent fieldwork, archival museum collections, and literature references. The jacks (Carangidae, 18 species) and the labrisomid blennies (Labrisomidae, 16) were the most speciose families. Most recorded species occur throughout the tropical eastern Pacific (160 species), while a significant proportion have wider ranges in the eastern Pacific (39), eastern Pacific and Indo-Pacific (39), eastern Pacific and Atlantic (3), or are circumtropical (39) in distribution. Three species occur in the Northeast Pacific, twenty-five are endemic to the Pacific coasts of Mexico, five are endemic to the Gulf of California, and three are endemic to Islas Marías. Cephalopholis panamensis (Epinephelidae), Epinephelus labriformis (Epinephelidae), Mulloidichthys dentatus (Mullidae), Stegastes flavilatus (Pomacentridae), Acanthurus xanthopterus (Acanthuridae), Pseudobalistes naufragium (Tetraodontidae), and Sufflamen verres (Tetraodontidae) were the dominant conspicuous species observed during underwater surveys in 2010. The absence or low abundance of commercially valuable shark, ray, and grouper species throughout the archipelago is discussed. Copyright © 2011 Magnolia Press. Source


Aburto-Oropeza O.,University of California at San Diego | Ezcurra E.,University of California at Riverside | Moxley J.,Duke University | Sanchez-Rodriguez A.,Centro Para la Biodiversidad Marina y la Conservacion | And 4 more authors.
Ecological Indicators | Year: 2015

The recovery of historic community assemblages on reefs is a primary objective for the management of marine ecosystems. Working under the overall hypothesis that, as fishing pressure increases, the abundance in upper trophic levels decreases followed by intermediate levels, we develop an index that characterizes the comparative health of rocky reefs. Using underwater visual transects to sample rocky reefs in the Gulf of California, Mexico, we sampled 147 reefs across 1200 km to test this reef health index (IRH). Five-indicators described 88% of the variation among the reefs along this fishing-intensity gradient: the biomass of piscivores and carnivores were positively associated with reef health; while the relative abundances of zooplanktivores, sea stars, and sea urchins, were negatively correlated with degraded reefs health. The average size of commercial macro-invertebrates and the absolute fish biomass increased significantly with increasing values of the IRH. Higher total fish biomass was found on reefs with complex geomorphology compared to reefs with simple geomorphology (r2 = 0.14, F = 44.05, P < 0.0001) and the trophic biomass pyramid also changed, which supports the evidence of the inversion of biomass pyramids along the gradient of reefs' health. Our findings introduce a novel approach to classify the health of rocky reefs under different fishing regimes and therefore resultant community structures. Additionally, our IRH provides insight regarding the potential gains in total fish biomass that may result from the conservation and protection of reefs with more complex geomorphology. © 2015 The Authors. Source

Discover hidden collaborations