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Sasso Marconi, Italy

Giantin M.,University of Padua | Granato A.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie | Baratto C.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie | Marconato L.,Centro Oncologico Veterinario | And 5 more authors.

Prognosis and therapeutic management of dogs with cutaneous mast cell tumors (MCTs) depend on clinical stage and histological grade. However, the prognostic value of this latter is still questionable. In the present study, MCT transcriptome was analyzed to identify a set of candidate genes potentially useful for predicting the biological behavior of MCTs. Fifty-one canine MCT biopsies were analyzed. Isolated and purified total RNAs were individually hybridized to the Agilent Canine V2 4x44k DNA microarray. The comparison of reference differentiated and undifferentiated MCT transcriptome revealed a total of 597 differentially expressed genes (147 down-regulated and 450 up-regulated). The functional analysis of this set of genes provided evidence that they were mainly involved in cell cycle, DNA replication, p53 signaling pathway, nucleotide excision repair and pyrimidine metabolism. Class prediction analysis identified 13 transcripts providing the greatest accuracy of class prediction and divided samples into two categories (differentiated and undifferentiated), harboring a different prognosis. The Principal Component Analysis of all samples, made by using the selected 13 markers, confirmed MCT classification. The first three components accounted for 99.924% of the total variance. This molecular classification significantly correlated with survival time (p = 0.0026). Furthermore, among all marker genes, a significant association was found between mRNA expression and MCT-related mortality for FOXM1, GSN, FEN1 and KPNA2 (p<0.05). Finally, marker genes mRNA expression was evaluated in a cohort of 22 independent samples. Data obtained enabled to identify MCT cases with different prognosis. Overall, the molecular characterization of canine MCT transcriptome allowed the identification of a set of 13 transcripts that clearly separated differentiated from undifferentiated MCTs, thus predicting outcome regardless of the histological grade. These results may have clinical relevance and warrant future validation in a prospective study. © 2014 Giantin et al. Source

Marconato L.,Centro Oncologico Veterinario | Buracco P.,University of Turin | Aresu L.,University of Padua
Veterinary Journal

The field of oncology research has undergone major changes in recent years. Progress in molecular and cellular biology has led to a greater understanding of the cellular pathways and mechanisms of cell proliferation and tissue invasion associated with cancer. New classes of cancer therapies are becoming available or are in development but these new agents require a paradigm shift in the design of oncology clinical trials. This review provides an overview of clinical trial designs for the development of tumour vaccines and targeted therapeutic agents. In addition, some of the successes, limitations and challenges of these trials are discussed, with a special emphasis on the difficulties and particularities that are encountered in veterinary medicine compared to similar work in human patients. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Ferraresso S.,University of Padua | Bresolin S.,University of Padua | Arico A.,University of Padua | Comazzi S.,University of Milan | And 6 more authors.

Epigenetic modifications are important early events during carcinogenesis. In particular, hypermethylation of CpG islands in the promoter region of tumor suppressor genes is a well-known mechanism of gene silencing that contributes to cancer development and progression. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor 2 (TFPI-2) is a tumor suppressor involved in invasiveness inhibition. Although TFPI-2 transcriptional silencing, through promoter hypermethylation, has been widely reported in several human malignancies, it has never been explored in lymphoma. In the present study TFPI-2 methylation and gene expression have been investigated in canine Diffuse Large B-cell lymphomas (cDLBCL). The methylation level of 23 CpGs located within the TFPI-2 promoter was investigated by bisulfite-specific PCR and next generation amplicon deep sequencing (GS Junior 454, Roche) in 22 cDLBCLs and 9 controls. For the same specimens, TFPI-2 gene expression was assessed by means of Real-time RT-PCR. Sequence analysis clearly demonstrated that TFPI2 is frequently hypermethylated in cDLBCL. Hypermethylation of the TFPI-2 promoter was found in 77% of DLBCLs (17 out of 22) and in one normal lymph node. Globally, dogs with DLBCL showed a mean methylation level significantly increased compared to controls (p<0.01) and analysis of hypermethylation by site identified 19 loci out of 23 (82%) with mean methylation levels from 2- to 120-fold higher in cDLBCL. Gene expression analysis confirmed a significant down-regulation of TFPI-2 (p<0.05) in DLBCLs compared with normal lymph nodes, suggesting that TFPI-2 hypermethylation negatively regulates its transcription. In addition, a significant positive correlation (p<0.01) was found between TFPI-2 methylation levels and age providing the first indication of age-associated epigenetic modifications in canine DLBCL. To conclude, our findings demonstrated that epigenetic dysregulation of TFPI-2, leading to its reduced expression, is frequently detected in canine DLBCL. In the next future, the aberrant TFPI-2 promoter hypermethylation may be considered in association with prognosis and therapy. © 2014 Ferraresso et al. Source

Millanta F.,University of Pisa | Asproni P.,University of Pisa | Cancedda S.,Centro Oncologico Veterinario | Vignoli M.,Clinica Veterinaria | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Comparative Pathology

Accumulating evidence suggests that cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 is involved in the pathogenesis of human and canine osteosarcoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of COX-2 in normal, reactive and neoplastic canine bone and the events downstream to COX-2 that lead to prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. COX-2, microsomal PGE2 synthase-1 (mPGES-1) and the PGE2 receptor (EP2) were assessed by immunohistochemistry in 12 samples of normal bone, 14 cases of fracture callus and 27 appendicular osteosarcomas. No immunoreactivity to COX-2, mPGES-1 or EP2 receptor was observed in normal bone. Fifty percent of reactive bone samples expressed COX-2 and 57% expressed mPGES-1 and EP2 receptor, although with weak labelling intensity. Ninety-three percent of osteosarcomas expressed COX-2, while mPGES-1 was expressed by 85% and EP2 receptor by 89% of the tumours. The data confirm that COX-2 is expressed at high level in osteosarcoma and support the use of COX-2 inhibitors to improve the response to chemotherapy. The possibility of blocking the EP2 or the selective inhibition of mPGES-1, rather than COX-2 activity, might decrease the incidence of adverse effects that occur due to the inhibition of prostanoids other than PGE2. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Comazzi S.,University of Milan | Guscetti F.,University of Zurich | Marconato L.,Centro Oncologico Veterinario
Hematological Oncology

This satellite meeting to the 12th International Conference on Malignant Lymphoma was conceived to bring together European researchers focused on canine lymphoma to explore several facets of this promising model of human disease. A series of invited lectures showed striking similarities between the two diseases namely in topics related to pathogenesis, diagnosis and classification and therapy. In particular, the potential value of the model was shown at the level of the NF-kB/p65 pathway, the Bcl-2 family of proteins, Ki67 and the S-phase fraction, as well as the MMPs, VEGF and PDGF. The utility of the growing body of well-characterized canine cell lines was stressed. The value of cytology and flow cytometry as tools for diagnosis, disease progression monitoring and prognosis were emphasized, whereas the failure so far of the standard immunohistochemical panel to differentiate between germinal centre and non-germinal centre diffuse large B-cell lymphomas subtypes in dogs was discussed. Further contributions included the report of encouraging results from a chemo-immunotherapy trial administered to dogs with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, an overview on the use of radiation therapy for canine lymphoma and the role of surgery in splenic lymphoma. Altogether, the success of this meeting, attended by more than 160 participants, documents the rising interest for the spontaneous canine lymphoma model. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

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