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Ettorre G.M.,POIT S.Camillo Spallanzani | Galatioto L.,IsMeTT | Rendina M.,Pol. Umberto i | Nudo F.,Pol. Umberto i | And 11 more authors.
Transplantation Proceedings | Year: 2013

Objective The objective of this study was to quantify incidence rates (IR) and risks of de novo tumors (except nonmelanoma skin cancers) in patients who underwent orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) in central and southern Italy. Methods Data were collected on 1675 patients (75.5% males) who underwent OLT in six Italian transplantation centers in central and southern Italy (1990-2008). The time at risk of cancer (person years [PY]) was computed from OLT to the date of cancer diagnosis, death, or last follow-up, whichever occurred first. The number of observed cancer cases were compared with the expected one using data from population-based cancer registries. We computed gender- and age-standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results During 10,104.3 PYs (median follow-up, 5.2 years), 98 patients (5.9% of the total) were diagnosed with a de novo malignancy (for a total of 100 diagnoses). Twenty-two of these cancers were post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD; 18 non-Hodgkin lymphoma [NHL] and 2 Hodgkin's lymphoma [HL]), 6 were Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), and 72 were solid tumors (19 head and neck [H&N], 13 lung, 11 colon-rectum, 6 bladder, and 4 melanoma). The overall incidence was 9.9 cases/103 PYs, with a 1.4-fold significantly increased SIR (95% CI, l.2-1.7). Significantly increased SIRs were observed for KS (37.3), PTLD (3.9), larynx (5.7), melanoma (3.1), tongue (7.1), and H&N (4.5) cancers. Conclusions These results confirmed that OLT patients are at greater risk for cancer, mainly malignancies either virus-associated or related to pre-existent factors (eg, alcohols). These observations point to the need to improve cancer surveillance after OLT. The on-going enrollment of patients in the present cohort study will help to elucidate the burden of cancer after OLT and better identify risk factors associated with its development. © 2013 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Serraino D.,Irccs Centro Of Riferimento Oncologico | Segoloni G.P.,Science Nefrologia Dialisi Trapianto | Sandrini S.,Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology and Nephrology | Piredda G.B.,Azienda Ospedaliera G. Brotzu | And 12 more authors.
European Journal of Cancer | Year: 2013

To assess incidence and risk factors for de novo cancers (DNCs) after kidney transplant (KT), we carried out a cohort investigation in 15 Italian KT centres. Seven thousand two-hundred seventeen KT recipients (64.2% men), transplanted between 1997 and 2007 and followed-up until 2009, represented the study group. Person years (PY) were computed from 30 days after transplant to cancer diagnosis, death, return to dialysis or to study closure. The number of observed DNCs was compared to that expected in the general population of Italy through standardised incidence ratios (SIR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). To identify risk factors, incidence rate ratios (IRR) were computed. Three-hundred ninety five DNCs were diagnosed during 39.598 PYs, with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD), particularly non-Hodgkin' lymphoma (NHL), lung, kidney and prostate as the most common types. The overall IR was 9.98/1.000 PY, with a 1.7-fold augmented SIR (95% CI: 1.6-1.9). SIRs were particularly elevated for KS (135), lip (9.4), kidney carcinoma (4.9), NHL (4.5) and mesothelioma (4.2). KT recipients born in Southern Italy were at reduced risk of kidney cancer and solid tumors, though at a higher KS risk, than those born in Northern Italy. Use of mTOR inhibitors (mTORi) exerted, for all cancers combined, a 46% significantly reduced risk (95% CI: 0.4-0.7). Our study findings confirmed, in Italy, the increased risks for cancer following KT, and they also suggested a possible protective effect of mTORi in reducing the frequency of post transplant cancers. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Trama A.,Evaluative Epidemiology Unit | Foschi R.,Evaluative Epidemiology Unit | Larranaga N.,Basque Cancer Registry | Larranaga N.,CIBER ISCIII | And 6 more authors.
European Journal of Cancer | Year: 2015

Background We provide updated estimates of survival and survival trends of male genital tumours (prostate, testicular and penis cancers), in Europe and across European areas. Methods The complete approach was used to obtain relative survival estimates for patients diagnosed in 2000-2007, and followed up through 2008 in 29 countries. Data came from 87 cancer registries (CRs) for prostate tumours and from 86 CRs for testis and penis tumours. Relative survival time trends in 1999-2007 were estimated by the period approach. Data came from 49 CRs in 25 countries. Results We analysed 1,021,275 male genital cancer cases. Five-year relative survival was high and decreased with increasing age for all tumours considered. We found limited variation in survival between European regions with Eastern Europe countries having lower survival than the others. Survival for penile cancer patients did not improve from 1999 to 2007. Survival for testicular cancer patients remained stable at high levels since 1999. Survival for prostate cancer patients increased over time. Conclusions Treatment standardisation and centralisation for very rare diseases such as penile cancers or advanced testicular tumours should be supported. The high survival of testicular cancer makes long-term monitoring of testicular cancer survivors necessary and CRs can be an important resource. Prostate cancer patients' survival must be interpreted considering incidence and mortality data. The follow-up of the European Randomised Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer should continue to clarify the impact of screening on prostate cancer mortality together with population based studies including information on stage and treatments. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.All rights reserved.

Polesel J.,Irccs Centro Of Riferimento Oncologico | Gheit T.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | Talamini R.,Irccs Centro Of Riferimento Oncologico | Shahzad N.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | And 7 more authors.
British Journal of Cancer | Year: 2012

Background: The association of transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder (TCB) with Schistosoma haematobium suggested a possible role of infections in the aetiology of TCB. Methods: In all, 114 TCB cases and 140 hospital controls from Pordenone Province were enrolled within an Italian multi-centric case-control study. Urine samples were screened for DNA from five human polyomaviruses (HPyV) (JCV, BKV, MCV, WUV, and KIV); SV40; and 22 mucosal human papillomaviruses (HPV) using highly sensitive PCR assays. Odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding confidence intervals (CIs) were computed for risk of TCB by HPyV-or HPV-positivity using unconditional logistic regression. Results: Human polyomavirus prevalence was similar in TCB cases (71.7%) and controls (77.7%) (OR for TCB=0.85; 95% CI: 0.45-1.61). JCV was the most frequently detected HPyV type. No individual HPyV showed a significant association. Among cases, HPyV-positivity was not associated with tumour characteristics, but it was significantly lower in women than men and among current and former smokers than never smokers. Human papillomavirus was detected in seven cases and five controls (OR=1.52; 95% CI: 0.42-5.45). Conclusion: The present small study does not support an involvement of HPyV or HPV infection in TCB aetiology in immunocompetent individuals. Differences in HPyV-positivity by sex and smoking may derive from differences in either acquisition or persistence of the infection. © 2012 Cancer Research UK All rights reserved.

Rossi M.,Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research | Rossi M.,University of Milan | Lugo A.,Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research | Lagiou P.,Harvard University | And 10 more authors.
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2012

Background: Four cohort studies have examined the relation between flavonoids and pancreatic cancer risk providing inconsistent results. Patients and methods: We conducted a case-control study between 1991 and 2008 in Northern Italy. Subjects were 326 cases with incident pancreatic cancer and 652 frequency-matched controls (admitted to the same hospitals as cases for acute non-neoplastic conditions) who answered a reproducible and valid food-frequency questionnaire. We computed odds ratios (ORs) using logistic regression models conditioned on gender, age and study center, and adjusted for education, history of diabetes, tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking and energy intake. Results: Proanthocyanidins with three or more mers were inversely related to pancreatic cancer risk. The ORs were similar in all classes of polymers with three or more mers and in their combination (OR for the highest versus the lowest quintile of intake, 0.41; 95% confidence interval 0.24-0.69), and did not substantially change after adjustment for fruit and vegetable consumption, and for vitamin C and folate intakes. Eating an additional portion of fruits rich in proanthocyanidins every day reduced the risk of pancreatic cancer by 25%. Conclusion: Dietary proanthocyanidins-mostly present in apples, pears and pulses-may convey some protection against pancreatic cancer risk. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved.

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